ⓘ Television in Indonesia
State-run station TVRI held a television monopoly in Indonesia until 1989, when the first commercial station, RCTI began as a local station and was subsequently granted a national license a year later.
Each of the networks have a wide variety of programmes, ranging from traditional shows, such as wayang performances, to programmes like Indonesian Idol which are based on Western models. One typical television show common to almost every network is Sinetron is usually a drama series, following the soap opera format, but can also refer to any fictional series. Sometimes it can be comedic, like the popular Bajaj Bajuri series, featuring a bajaj driver and the people he drives around.
The first time the Indonesian public witnessed the demonstration of a television was in 1955, 29 years after its introduction in 1926, and 26 years after the worlds first television broadcast was made in 1929. These first televisions were brought from the Soviet Union during the Yogyakarta 200 years anniversary fair Pekan Raja 200 Tahun Kota Djogjakarta.
On July 25, 1961, the Minister of Information, R. Maladi, signed an agreement SK Menpen to create a committee for the preparation of the establishment of television in Indonesia. This was established as a part of the preparation for the fourth Asian Games. There was only a year to create a studio, broadcast tower, and other technical equipments in the former site of the Information Academy at Senayan. In that short period of preparation, Sukarno had a very prominent role, going as far as to personally choosing the equipment and where they should be imported from. The first experimental TV broadcast was the live coverage of the celebration of the 17th Anniversary of Indonesias Independence on the morning August 17, 1962 from Jakartas Merdeka Palace.
At 14.30, August 24, 1962, the citizens of Jakarta witnessed the live broadcast of the opening ceremony of the 4th Asian Games from Gelora Bung Karno. This broadcast was held by the Television Division of the Radio and Television Organizing Committee Bureau. This day is now recognized as the birth of Televisi Republik Indonesia or TVRI, the first television station in Indonesia.
On October 20, 1963, the government issued a Presidential Decision Keppres regarding the formation of the TVRI Foundation Jajasan TVRI as its governing body. In the first year of the TVRI broadcast, there are 10.000 television owners in Indonesia. Since then, the Foundation allotted a tax for television-owners until 1969, when the television property tax was transferred through mail and air deliveries nationwide. From 1963 to 1976, TVRI established television stations in Yogyakarta 1965, Medan 1970, Makassar 1972, Balikpapan 1973, and Palembang 1974. In 2001, TVRI has 12 television stations and 8 production studios. Color broadcasting was introduced on September 1, 1979 on TVRIs national and local stations, which expanded to other provincial capitals. TVRI also adopted a second channel for Jakarta viewers at the same time.
Advertisements were introduced to TVRI on March 1, 1963 to cope with the increasing broadcast hours. This advertisement was known as Siaran Niaga literally "advertisement broadcast". Now, television advertisements and other general advertisings are known simply as iklan "advertisement".
On August 16, 1976, the Domestic Satellite Communication System Sistem Komunikasi Satelit Domestik or SKSD through Palapa A1 was inaugurated. This communication satellite was the first satellite owned by Indonesia and one of the first satellite operated by a developing country. Palapa A1 had 12 transponders which allows TVRI to distribute its broadcast reach nationally. Thus TVRI entered the 1980s with a two-channel system, the first, TVRI Nasional, being broadcast nationwide with the second channel broadcasting local content from the provinces and Jakarta.
On January 5, 1980, President Soeharto issued an instruction to remove the Siaran Niaga advertisements from TVRI. The reason for this is from the belief that advertisements may create negative effects for the development of Indonesia during that time. This instructions had created pros and cons, especially because there is no research behind this statement. One month later, the Department of Informations Research and Department division decided to perform a research about the effect of advertisements to national development programs aired within the TVRI network. In March 1980, the ban on commercial advertisements was lifted.
As the only TV station in Indonesia for many years, aside from coverage of state events, sessions of the Peoples Consultative Assembly and national holidays, as well as news, educational programming and regional programs in the many regional languages, TVRI had also broadcast entertainment, child-oriented and sports programmes to suit the needs of the viewing public. As part of the plans of the Fifth Development Cabinet, however, noticing how its ASEAN neighbours had operated private television channels with success, the door was opened for the formation of private television stations and an end to the TVRI monopoly. On August 24, 1989, the second television station in Indonesia, Rajawali Citra Televisi Indonesia or RCTI, was inaugurated. This was the nations first privately owned television station. The television station was owned by Bambang Trihatmodjo. Unlike TVRI, RCTI was allowed to broadcast advertisements up to 15% its broadcast hours, and began as a local station before broadcasting countrywide. TVRI would finally air advertisements since 1998 after the country transitioned to democracy. On August 24, 1990, the third television station, Surya Citra Televisi or SCTV, formerly Surabaya Centra Televisi, was inaugurated. This television station was owned by "king of cineplex" Sudwikatmono.
On September 13, 1990, the president issued Presidential Decree no. 40 regarding the television property tax collection between Yayasan TVRI and PT Mekatama Raya, a private company owned by Sudwikatmono and Sigit Hardjojudanto. Since the beginning of 1991, this private company was the responsible body to withdraw television property tax from the people. The reason for this change is to increase revenue from the lower 1969 post and air mail system.
On January 23, 1991, PT Cipta Televisi Pendidikan Indonesia TPI started its broadcast of educational programs with some advertisements. The company was led by Siti Hardjanti. During its first years, TPI shared channels with TVRI and as a blocktimer then with the channel, its facility and operational staff, whenever TVRI did not broadcast, were supported by the channel.
On April 14, 1992, the Directorate General of Radio, Television and Films decided that Yayasan TVRI will phrase out the television tax altogether when, after one year, PT Mekatama Raya failed to increase the revenue from payments made by viewers.
On October 1992, the Ministry of Information issued televiison broadcast licenses for six companies: PT Indosiar Visual Mandiri or Indosiar Jakarta, PT Sanitya Mandara Televisi Yogyakarta, PT Merdeka Citra Televisi Indonesia Semarang, PT Ramako Indotelevisi Batam, PT Cakrawala Andalas Televisi or ANTV Lampung, and PT Cakrawala Bumi Sriwijaya Televisi Palembang. Of all these six television companies, only PT Indosiar Visual Mandiri and PT Cakrawala Andalas Televisi were able to broadcast continuously. On February 28, 1993, PT Cakrawala Andalas Televisi, a joint venture between Agung Laksono and the Bakrie family, started its first broadcast. The broadcast station was initially planned to be located in Lampung, but later moved to Jakarta, in a building at Kuningan. PT Indosiar Visual Mandiri, owned by Salim Group, started its first broadcast on January 11, 1995.
In March 1998, TV Kabel Indovision, operated by PT Matahari Lintas Cakrawala under the leadership of Peter F. Gontha, started its operation as the first cable television in Indonesia the first cable television was operated in the United States in 1972. Previously, since 1996, Indovision had operated using television decoders and parabolic antennas.
In October 1999, out of fourteen applicants that had been received by Department of Information, five television broadcasting companies passed the selection and received broadcast licenses. These companies are: Trans TV, MetroTV operated by Grup Media Indonesia which was led by Surya Paloh, Global TV PT Global Informasi Bermutu, established by Timmy Habibie, Lativi PT Lativi Media Karya, owned by Abdul Latief, and TV7 PT Duta Visual Nusantara Tivi Tujuh. Metro TV was the first to broadcast on November 25, 2000, as the seventh Indonesian television channel
On June 7, 2000, following the changes after the dissolution of the Department of Information by President Abdurrahman Wahid, TVRI was officially able to change its status into a Service Company Perusahaan Jawatan.
The use of Chinese was banned from 1965 to 1994 in Indonesian television, but its use did not come until years later. In November 2000, after more than 3 decades, Metro TV would become the first to broadcast news in Mandarin Chinese to the Indonesian Chinese community.
2.1. Types of Indonesian television broadcast Terrestrial
Terrestrial TV started with the establishment of the first television station in Indonesia. Indonesia only has one television channel until the establishment of RCTI is a first private television in Indonesia. Currently, the major national free-to-air terrestrial television stations in Indonesia are TVRI, RCTI, SCTV, MNCTV, antv, Indosiar, Metro TV, Trans TV, Trans7, tvOne, GTV, Kompas TV, NET., RTV, iNews, and MYTV, Info TV Indonesia, Mola TV. Since Q1 2011 the authority allow Indonesian digital television simulcast with analog television in some area. Indonesia adopted DVB-T format but decided to change to DVB-T2 on 1 January 2012.
2.2. Types of Indonesian television broadcast Satellite
Satellite television has been available in Indonesia since Indovision, now known as MNC Vision, incorporated on 8 August 1988 and officially launched on 16 January 1994. Since then, technology for satellite television has changed from analogue to digital. Satellite television in Indonesia using digital video broadcasting-satellite format. Up to now, there are more than five satellite pay TV operators: MNC Vision, Transvision, Skynindo, OrangeTV, Topas TV, K-Vision and BiG TV. Free satellite television is available nationwide through various satellites, such as Palapa-D and Telkom-1.
2.3. Types of Indonesian television broadcast Cable
PT Broadband Multimedia Tbk is the first operator for cable TV in Indonesia under the brand name "Kabelvision" on 16 January 1994. In 2006, the company launched Digital 1 along with the technology changed from analogue to digital. The company then change the name of the company to PT First Media Tbk on 8 September 2007 and also launched new brand, name First Media. Cable TV now is only available in Jabodetabek, Surabaya, and Bandung area. Cable TV in Indonesia is using digital video broadcasting-cable format.
2.4. Types of Indonesian television broadcast Mobile
Mobile TV has two categories, free-to-air and Pay TV. Free-to-air TV available for years in Indonesia. Free-to-air is using analogue technology like UHF/VHF. Now free-to-air TV has adopted digital technology. In Indonesia, free-to-air TV is using digital video broadcasting-handheld format.
There is only one operator for Mobile Pay TV in Indonesia. Mobile TV is currently only available in Jakarta.
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