ⓘ Aleatoricism

                                     

ⓘ Aleatoricism

Aleatoricism, the noun associated with the adjectival aleatory is a term popularised by the musical composer Pierre Boulez, but also Witold Lutoslawski and Franco Evangelisti, for compositions resulting from "actions made by chance", with its etymology deriving from alea, Latin word for "dice". It now applies more broadly to art created as a result of such a chance-determined process. The term was first used "in the context of electro-acoustics and information theory" to describe "a course of sound events that is determined in its framework and flexible in detail", by Belgian-German physicist, acoustician, and information theorist Werner Meyer-Eppler. In practical application, in compositions by Mozart and Kirnberger, for instance, the order of the measures of a musical piece were left to be determined by throwing dice, and in performances of music by Pousseur, musicians threw dice "for sheets of music and cues". However, more generally in musical contexts, the term has had varying meanings as it was applied by various composers, and so a single, clear definition for aleatory music is defied. Aleatory should not be confused with either indeterminacy, or improvisation.

                                     

1. Music

The term aleatory was first coined by Werner Meyer-Eppler in 1955 to describe a course of sound events that is "determined in general but depends on chance in detail". When his article was published in English, the translator mistakenly rendered his German noun Aleatorik as an adjective, and so inadvertently created a new English word, "aleatoric". Pierre Boulez applied the term in this sense to his own pieces to distinguish them from the indeterminate music of John Cage. While Boulez purposefully composed his pieces to allow the performer certain liberties with regard to the sequencing and repetition of parts, Cage often composed through the application of chance operations without allowing the performer liberties.

Another composer of aleatory music was the German composer Karlheinz Stockhausen, who had attended Meyer-Epplers seminars in phonetics, acoustics, and information theory at the University of Bonn from 1954 to 1956, and put these ideas into practice for the first time in his electronic composition Gesang der Junglinge 1955–56, in the form of statistically structured, massed "complexes" of sounds.

Aleatoric techniques are sometimes used in contemporary film music, e.g., in John Williamss film scores and Mark Snows music for X-Files: Fight the Future.

                                     

2. Further reading and viewing

  • Alison Knowles website, relevant to her computer poem "House of Dust".
  • Gignoux, Anne Claire. 2003. La recriture: formes, enjeux, valeurs autour du nouveau roman. Paris: Presses de lUniversite de Paris-Sorbonne. ISBN 2-84050-260-7.
  • SN 1984, a film by Fred Camper.
  • Six Reels of Film to Be Shown in Any Order 1971, BFI Film & TV Database.
  • Six Reels of Film to Be Shown in Any Order 1971. on IMDb
  • Rennie, Nicholas. 2005. Speculating on the Moment: The Poetics of Time and Recurrence in Goethe, Leopardi, and Nietzsche. Munchener Universitatsschriften: Munchener komparatistische Studien 8. Gottingen: Wallstein Verlag. ISBN 9783892449683.
  • Andy Vodas film "Chance Chants".
                                     
  • Future John Corigliano, and others Karlin and Wright 2004, 430 36 Aleatoricism Algorithmic music Generative music Boehmer, Konrad. 1967. Zur Theorie
  • Aleatoricism is the incorporation of chance random elements into the process of creation, especially the creation of art or media. Aleatoricism is
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  • were known as tali. In Greek a die was κύβος kybos. Ancient Rome portal Aleatoricism List of Latin phrases Point of no return Ut est rerum omnium magister
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  • details up to chance in performance. The indeterminate character produces aleatoric counterpoint, which is a type of sound mass. The score of the first movement
  • 1965 and 1967. The work exhibits Lutoslawski s technique of limited aleatoricism where the individual instrumental parts are notated exactly, but their
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