ⓘ List of U.S. chemical weapons topics

                                     

ⓘ List of U.S. chemical weapons topics

The United States chemical weapons program began in 1917 during World War I with the creation of the U.S. Armys Gas Service Section and ended 73 years later in 1990 with the countrys practical adoption of the Chemical Weapons Convention. Destruction of stockpiled chemical weapons began in 1985 and is still ongoing. The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Chemical Defense, at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, continues to operate for purely defensive research and education purposes.

                                     

1. Agencies and organizations

Units

  • 2nd Chemical Mortar Battalion
  • 1st Gas Regiment
  • Chemical mortar battalion

Older chemical weapons program locations

  • Dugway Proving Ground
  • Rocky Mountain Arsenal
  • Camp Leach
  • Navajo Ordnance Depot
  • Camp American University
                                     

1.1. Agencies and organizations Units

  • 2nd Chemical Mortar Battalion
  • 1st Gas Regiment
  • Chemical mortar battalion
                                     

1.2. Agencies and organizations Modern chemical depots

Active bases

  • Blue Grass Army Depot
  • Pueblo Chemical Depot

Closed bases

  • Deseret Chemical Depot with Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility closed 2013
  • Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System closed 2000
  • Anniston Chemical Activity closed 2013
  • Hawthorne Army Depot eliminated shells 1999
  • Newport Chemical Depot closed 2008
  • Umatilla Chemical Depot closed 2014
  • Edgewood Chemical Activity at Aberdeen Proving Ground closed 2006
  • Pine Bluff Chemical Activity closed 2014
                                     

1.3. Agencies and organizations Older chemical weapons program locations

  • Dugway Proving Ground
  • Rocky Mountain Arsenal
  • Camp Leach
  • Navajo Ordnance Depot
  • Camp American University
                                     

2. Treaties, laws and policy

The U.S. is party to several treaties which limit chemical weapons:

  • Treaty relating to the Use of Submarines and Noxious Gases in Warfare - Failed because France objected to clauses relating to submarine warfare
  • Executive Order 13128
  • Public Law 99-145
  • Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act of 1998
  • Chemical Weapons Convention
  • Executive Order 11850
  • Hague Conventions 1899 and 1907
  • Geneva Protocol
  • Executive Order 13049
                                     

3. Weapons

Canceled weapon projects

While these weapon systems were developed, they were not produced or stored in the US chemical weapons stockpile.

  • BIGEYE bomb
  • XM-736 8-inch binary projectile

Vehicles

  • M93 Fox
  • LCIM, infantry landing craft armed with 4.2 in mortar
  • MQM-58 Overseer
  • M1135 Nuclear, Biological, Chemical, Reconnaissance Vehicle, a variation of the Stryker vehicle


                                     

3.1. Weapons Canceled weapon projects

While these weapon systems were developed, they were not produced or stored in the US chemical weapons stockpile.

  • BIGEYE bomb
  • XM-736 8-inch binary projectile
                                     

3.2. Weapons Vehicles

  • M93 Fox
  • LCIM, infantry landing craft armed with 4.2 in mortar
  • MQM-58 Overseer
  • M1135 Nuclear, Biological, Chemical, Reconnaissance Vehicle, a variation of the Stryker vehicle
                                     

3.3. Weapons Stockpiled chemical agents

Agents stockpiled at the time of Chemical Weapons Convention:

  • VX
  • isopropyl aminoethylmethyl phosphonite, or QL, part of a binary weapon VX
  • Mustard gas
  • Methylphosphonyl difluoride known to the military as DF and a mixture of isopropyl alcohol and isopropyl amine known as OPA, a binary chemical weapon sarin
  • Rainbow Herbicides
  • Sarin GB
                                     

4.1. Exercises, incidents, and accidents Operations and exercises

  • Operation Geranium, a 1948 operation that dumped lewisite into the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Operation Snoopy, Vietnam War people sniffer operations.
  • Operation Rock Ready, 1980s testing and rebuilding of the M17 series protective mask
  • Operation Blue Skies
  • Operation Ranch Hand, defoliant operations during the Vietnam War
  • Operation Red Hat, an early 1970 program to repatriate weapons from Okinawa
  • Operation CHASE, an operation that dumped conventional and chemical munitions at sea
  • Operation Steel Box, an operation which moved chemical weapons out of Germany in 1990.
  • Operation Paperclip, a program beginning in 1945 to bring German scientists to the U.S.
  • Operation Davy Jones Locker, a post-World War II operation aimed at dumping German chemical weapons at seas
                                     

4.2. Exercises, incidents, and accidents Accidents

  • Dugway sheep incident
  • Bombing of the SS John Harvey during the Air Raid on Bari
                                     

4.3. Exercises, incidents, and accidents Chemical testing

  • Operation Top Hat, a 1953 Chemical Corps exercise testing decontamination methods on human subjects
  • Operation LAC, Large Area Coverage, 1958 test that dropped microscopic particles over much of the United States
  • Edgewood Arsenal human experiments
  • Project SHAD


                                     
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