ⓘ Second-level domain

.gov

The domain name gov is a sponsored top-level domain in the Domain Name System of Internet. The name is derived from the word government, indicating its restricted use by government entities. The gov domain is administered by the General Services Administration, an independent agency of the United States federal government. The U.S. is the only country that has a government-specific top-level domain in addition to its country-code top-level domain. This is a result of the origins of the Internet as a U.S. federal government-sponsored research network. Other countries typically delegate a se ...

.io

The Internet country code top-level domain.io is assigned to the British Indian Ocean Territory. The.io domain is administered by the Internet Computer Bureau, a domain name registry company based in the United Kingdom. Googles ad targeting treats.io as a generic top-level domain gTLD because "users and webmasters frequently see more generic than country-targeted."

.tr

.tr is the Internet country code top-level domain for Turkey. It is administered by NIC.TR Computer Center and Turkey Internet Society.nc.tr and.ct.tr are used as second-level domains for the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, which is a self declared state and not recognised by the United Nations, and as such has no country code assigned.

.us

.us is the Internet country code top-level domain for the United States of America. It was established in 1985. Registrants of.us domains must be American citizens, residents, or organizations, or a foreign entity with a presence in the United States of America. Most registrants in the United States of America have registered for.com.net.org and other gTLDs, instead of.us, which has primarily been used by state and local governments, even though private entities may also register.us domains.

.ba

Registration procedure for BA domain names is slightly more complicated than it is for registering international domains, and it is defined by laws and regulations of BiH institutions. For more information, please see Regulations regarding the registration of the BA domain. While international domains can be bought by anyone without any additional requests and documents.BA domain can be bought by only those who meet all requirements listed in Regulations. First condition for domain registration is that domain name is free. Also, local presence is needed. In simplified terms, a company that ...

.bf

.bf is the Internet country code top-level domain for Burkina Faso. It is administered by DELGI. The registry site is the ARCE website. A PDF version of the official registration form can be found here.

                                     

ⓘ Second-level domain

In the Domain Name System hierarchy, a second-level domain is a domain that is directly below a top-level domain. For example, in example.com, example is the second-level domain of the.com TLD.

Second-level domains commonly refer to the organization that registered the domain name with a domain name registrar. Some domain name registries introduce a second-level hierarchy to a TLD that indicates the type of entity intended to register an SLD under it. For example, in the.uk namespace a college or other academic institution would register under the.ac.uk ccSLD, while companies would register under.co.uk.

                                     

1. Country-code second-level domains

France

In France, there are various second-level domains available for certain sectors, including

  • .avocat.fr for attorneys,
  • .aeroport.fr for airports and
  • .veterinaire.fr for vets.

Trinidad and Tobago

  • travel.tt
  • tel.tt
  • co.tt
  • coop.tt
  • biz.tt
  • net.tt
  • charity.tt
  • aero.tt
  • info.tt
  • mil.tt
  • pro.tt
  • org.tt
  • edu.tt
  • jobs.tt
  • gov.tt
  • int.tt
  • com.tt
  • mobi.tt
  • name.tt
  • museum.tt

United States

A two-letter second-level domain is formally reserved for each U.S. state, federal territory, and the District of Columbia.

                                     

1.1. Country-code second-level domains France

In France, there are various second-level domains available for certain sectors, including

  • .avocat.fr for attorneys,
  • .aeroport.fr for airports and
  • .veterinaire.fr for vets.
                                     

1.2. Country-code second-level domains Trinidad and Tobago

  • travel.tt
  • tel.tt
  • co.tt
  • coop.tt
  • biz.tt
  • net.tt
  • charity.tt
  • aero.tt
  • info.tt
  • mil.tt
  • pro.tt
  • org.tt
  • edu.tt
  • jobs.tt
  • gov.tt
  • int.tt
  • com.tt
  • mobi.tt
  • name.tt
  • museum.tt
                                     

1.3. Country-code second-level domains Turkey

In Turkey, domain registrations, including the registration of second-level domains is administrated by nic.tr. There 17 active second-level domains under the.tr TLD. The registration of domains is restricted to Turkish individuals and businesses, or foreign companies with a business activity in Turkey. Second-level domains include.com.tr for commercial ventures.edu.tr for academic institutions and.name.tr for personal use.

                                     

1.4. Country-code second-level domains Ukraine

Ukraine second-level domains include:

  • .gov.ua – available for government agencies.
  • .org.ua – intended for non-profit organizations.
  • .com.ua – for commercial use.
  • .edu.ua – for academic institutions.
  • .in.ua – for commercial use.
  • .net.ua – available only for Internet providers in the UA.

There are also numerous geographic names.

                                     

1.5. Country-code second-level domains United States

A two-letter second-level domain is formally reserved for each U.S. state, federal territory, and the District of Columbia.



                                     

2. Historic second-level domains

There are several second-level domains which are no longer available.

France

Historic second-level domains for France included.tm.fr for brands. com.fr for commercial use and.asso.fr.

The Netherlands

Historic second-level domains for The Netherlands included. co.nl for commercial use

Tuvalu

Historic second-level domains for Tuvalu included: co.tv

                                     

2.1. Historic second-level domains Australia

Second-level domains under.au which are no longer available include.conf.au originally intended for conferences;.gw.au for the Australian Academic and Research networks; info.au for general information.otc.au and.telememo.au for the X.400 mail systems.

                                     

2.2. Historic second-level domains France

Historic second-level domains for France included.tm.fr for brands. com.fr for commercial use and.asso.fr.

                                     

2.3. Historic second-level domains The Netherlands

Historic second-level domains for The Netherlands included. co.nl for commercial use

                                     

2.4. Historic second-level domains Yugoslavia

In 2006 the.yu ccTLD was replaced by rs for Serbia and.me for Montenegro. Second-level domains under.yu included.ac.yu – for academic institutions.co.yu for commercial enterprises;.org.yu for organizations and.cg.yu for residents of Montenegro. Only legal entities were allowed to register names under.yu and its second-level domains.

                                     

2.5. Historic second-level domains Tuvalu

Historic second-level domains for Tuvalu included: co.tv



                                     

3. Legal issues

As a result of ICANNs generic top-level domain gTLD expansion, the risk of domain squatting has increased significantly. For example, based on current regulations, the registration of the gTLDs.olympics or.redcross is not allowed, however the registration of sites such as olympics.example or redcross.example is not controlled. Experts say that further restrictions are needed for second-level domains under the new gTLD.health, as well. For example, second-level domains under.tobacco.health or.diet.health can be easily misused by companies and therefore are a potential threat to Internet users.