ⓘ SPAM1

                                     

ⓘ SPAM1

Hyaluronidase PH-20 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SPAM1 gene.

Hyaluronidase decreases hyaluronic acid, a major structural proteoglycan found in extracellular matrices and basal membranes. Six members of the hyaluronidase family are grouped into two closely related groups on chromosome 3p21.3 and 7q31.3. This gene was previously called HYAL1 and HYA1 and was assigned the official symbol SPAM1, another family member on chromosome 3p21.3 has been assigned HYAL1. This gene encodes a GPI-anchored enzyme on the surface of human spermatozoa and inner membrane of the acrosome. This multifunctional protein is a hyaluronidase that enables sperm to penetrate through the hyaluronic acid-rich Cumulus cell layer surrounding the oocyte receptor, which plays an important role in hyaluronic acid induced cell signaling, and receptor, which is involved in sperm-Zona adhesion transparent. Abnormal expression of this gene in tumors has been implicated this protein in degradation of basement membranes leading to tumor invasion and metastasis. Multiple protein isoforms are encoded by transcript variants of this gene.

                                     
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