ⓘ Programmed cell death protein 1
Programmed cell death protein 1, also known as PD-1 and CD279, is a protein on the surface of cells that has a role in regulating the immune systems response to the cells of the human body by down-regulating the immune system and promoting self-tolerance by suppressing T cell inflammatory activity. This prevents autoimmune diseases, but it can also prevent the immune system from killing cancer cells.
PD-1 is an immune checkpoint and guards against autoimmunity by two mechanisms. First, it promotes apoptosis, programmed cell death of antigen-specific T-cells in lymph nodes. Second, it reduces the apoptosis of regulatory T-cells, anti-inflammatory, suppressive T cells.
PD-1 inhibitors-a new class of drugs that block PD-1, activate the immune system to attack tumors and used to treat certain types of cancer.
PD-1 protein in humans is encoded by the gene PDCD1. PD-1 is a cell surface receptor that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily and is expressed on T-lymphocytes and PRO-b cells. PD-1 binds two ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2.
- Programmed cell death or PCD is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program and is also referred to as Cellular Suicide.
- pathways of programmed cell death have been discovered. Called non - apoptotic programmed cell - death or caspase - independent programmed cell - death these
- Programmed death - ligand 1 PD - L 1 also known as cluster of differentiation 274 CD274 or B7 homolog 1 B7 - H 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded
- AICD activation - induced cell death is programmed cell death caused by the interaction of Fas receptors Fas, CD95 and Fas ligands FasL, CD95 ligand
- Death - associated protein 6 also known as Daxx is a protein that in humans is encoded by the DAXX gene. Daxx, a Death domain - associated protein was first
- The BCL2 associated agonist of cell death BAD protein is a pro - apoptotic member of the Bcl - 2 gene family which is involved in initiating apoptosis. BAD
- heterodimerizes in vivo with a conserved homolog, Bax, that accelerates programmed cell death Cell 74 4 609 19. doi: 10.1016 0092 - 8674 93 90509 - O. PMID 8358790
- kinase 1 is a positive mediator of gamma - interferon induced programmed cell death DAPK 1 encodes a structurally unique 160 - kD calmodulin dependent serine - threonine
- form of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms. Biochemical events lead to characteristic cell changes morphology and death These
- from initiating programmed cell death thus allowing the neurons to survive. Neurotrophins also induce differentiation of progenitor cells to form neurons