ⓘ TLR9

                                     

ⓘ TLR9

Toll-like receptor 9 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR9 gene. TLR9 has also been designated as CD289. It is a member of the toll-like receptor family. TLR9 is an important receptor expressed in immune system cells including dendritic cells, macrophages, natural killer cells, and other antigen presenting cells. TLR9 preferentially binds DNA present in bacteria and viruses, and triggers signaling cascades that lead to a pro-inflammatory cytokine response. Cancer, infection, and tissue damage can all modulate TLR9 expression and activation. TLR9 is also an important factor in autoimmune diseases, and there is active research into synthetic TLR9 agonists and antagonists that help regulate autoimmune inflammation.

                                     
  • viruses and even protozoa. TLR 6 has been shown to interact in a heterodimer form with TLR 2. Synergistic interactions of TLR 2 6 and TLR9 leading to higher resistance
  • by TLRs which activate immune cell responses. The TLRs include TLR 1, TLR 2, TLR 3, TLR 4, TLR 5, TLR 6, TLR 7, TLR 8, TLR9 TLR 10, TLR 11, TLR 12, and TLR 13
  • known as TLR 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR 2 gene. TLR 2 has also been designated as CD282 cluster of differentiation 282 TLR 2 is one
  • Toll - like receptor 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR 4 gene. TLR 4 is a transmembrane protein, member of the toll - like receptor family
  • that in humans is encoded by the TLR 10 gene. TLR 10 has also been designated as CD290 cluster of differentiation 290 TLR 10 has not been extensively studied
  • the TLR 8 gene. TLR 8 has also been designated as CD288 cluster of differentiation 288 It is a member of the toll - like receptor TLR family. TLR 8 seems
  • also known as TLR 5, is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TLR 5 gene. It is a member of the toll - like receptor TLR family. TLR 5 is known to recognize
  • Toll - like receptor 3 TLR 3 also known as CD283 cluster of differentiation 283 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR 3 gene. TLR 3 is a member of
  • such as double - stranded RNA dsRNA recognized by TLR 3 or unmethylated CpG motifs, recognized by TLR9 Although the term PAMP is relatively new, the
  • Toll - like receptor 7, also known as TLR 7, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the TLR 7 gene. Orthologs are found in mammals and birds. It is a member
  • TLR 1 is a member of the toll - like receptor family TLR of pattern recognition receptors of the innate immune system. TLR 1 recognizes pathogen - associated
  • It has been shown that IRAK - 1 is essential for TLR 7 and TLR9 interferon IFN induction. TLR 7 and TLR9 in plasmacytoid dendritic cells pDCs recognize
  • recognized by the pattern recognition receptor PRR Toll - Like Receptor 9 TLR9 which is constitutively expressed only in B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic