ⓘ History of Herefordshire
The History of Herefordshire starts with a shire in the time of Athelstan, and Herefordshire is mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1051. The first Anglo-Saxon settlers, the Magonsætan, were a sub-tribal unit of the Hwicce who occupied the Severn valley. The Magonsætan were said to be in the intervening lands between the Rivers Wye and Severn. The undulating hills of marl clay were surrounded by the Welsh mountains to the west, the Malvern Hills to the east, the Clent Hills of the Shropshire borders to the north, and the indeterminate extent of the Forest of Dean to the south. The shire name first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle was derived from "Here-ford", Old English for "Army crossing", the location for the city. The area was covered first by Offa of Mercia, who constructed the dyke as a boundary to keep warring tribes out of the Mercian kingdom: an early indication of the ambivalent relations with the Welsh. The shire as an administrative unit was developed from Alfred the Greats Burghal Hidage, and the Shire-reeve courts of the Hundred. In 676, during the reign of King Æthelred of Mercia the Archbishop of Canterbury Saint Theodore of Tarsus founded the Diocese of Hereford, to minister to the minor sub-kingdom of Magonsaete, and he appointed Putta as the first Bishop of Hereford. The establishment of a centre of law and justice was supported by a monastic chapter that flourished during the Tenth century Reformation. Herefords geographical location at the hub of the shire allowed Anglo-Saxon ealdormen to manage affairs, and Hereford played a vital role in the Scandinavian wars until Ralph, Earl Hereford was deposed by the regal Earl Harold Godwinson.
In the feudal book of overview of some of the adjacent areas of the Welsh marches in Herefordshire are estimated. The Western and southern borders remained debatable ground "Archenfield" yet, with the incorporation of the Welsh marches in 1535 considerable territory was annexed to Herefordshire. These places were formed hundreds of Wigmore, Ewyas Lacy and Huntingdon and Ewyas Harold were included in Webtree hundred. During the judgment a survey of departments of the County was very shaky. As mentioned nineteen hundreds, but they were to a different extent, some containing only one manor, some twenty to thirty. Of the twelve modern hundreds, only Greytree, the radlow, Stretford, Wolphy and Wormelow retain their original names of the last judgment. The rest were Broxash, Ewyas-Lacy, Grimsworth, Huntington, Webtree and Wigmore. Herefordshire on the border with Wales and before that the ancient borders of the Welsh marches.
In the modern era of forest boundary was not established until 1750, at which period several bishops Peculiars was revised to assessment of lands and redistribution. Some land in the North-West of the County moved to Shropshire, and some land in the East of the County of Worcestershire. However, in the South-West of the land of the Golden valley have been confirmed as Herefordiensis Herefordian. A unique source for the history of the County in the chained library contains some of the earliest printed books in Europe, printed by Gutenburg press. During the Civil war he acted as a Royal Treasury.
During the medieval period the district was defined in the law from violence and cruel punishments. He played a major role in various civil wars, gave rise to a Royal Duke, and gave rise to Lollardism. Completely independent folk and positions on the border with Wales in the County reputed to be the frontier mentality. Many were hanged on a burning haystack, because of the relatively low wages of workers in the agricultural sector, during the captain swing riots and later. However, unlike Norfolk, for example, is not a form of militant agricultural workers Union.
But the influence of the civilized 18th century, the enlightenment ushered in the era of poets and artists, priests and picturesque. Tourism, starting from Tintern Abbey to the Church of Malvern, the newly royalist past years.
Herefordshire continued to be backward in industrial development: canals and Railways arrived later than elsewhere in England. Development to reflect local needs: processing of cider apples, the production of agricultural machinery. It was not until the 1930-ies that the first female councillors were elected, and that the maintenance of the bus may be a short journey to Hereford. The population remained unchanged for 150 years until the year 2000, approximately 150.000.