ⓘ Endocrine gland

                                     

ⓘ Endocrine gland

Endocrine glands are ductless glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood. The major glands of the endocrine system include the pineal gland, pituitary gland, pancreas, ovaries, testes, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, hypothalamus and adrenal glands. The hypothalamus and pituitary glands are neuroendocrine organs.

The pituitary gland hangs from the base of the brain pituitary gland, and is surrounded by bone. It consists of hormone-producing glandular portion of the anterior pituitary and the nervous part of the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, which is a continuation of the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus regulates the hormonal output of the anterior pituitary gland creates two hormones that it exports to the posterior pituitary for storage and later release.

Four of the six anterior pituitary hormones tropic hormones which regulate the function of other endocrine organs. Most hormones of the anterior pituitary gland show circadian rhythm of release, which is subject to modification stimuli influencing the hypothalamus.

Somatotropic hormone or growth hormone GH is an anabolic hormone which stimulates growth of all body tissues, especially skeletal muscle and bone. He can act directly, or indirectly through insulin-like growth factors forums on Internet governance. GRS mobilizes fats, stimulates protein synthesis and inhibits glucose uptake and metabolism. Secretion is regulated by growth hormone releasing hormone growth hormone Releasing hormone and growth hormone inhibiting GHIH, or somatostatin. Hypersecretion causes gigantism in children and acromegaly in adults, hipocrecia in children causes pituitary dwarfism.

Thyroid stimulating hormone TSH stimulates the normal development and activity of the thyroid gland. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone TRH stimulates its release, negative feedback of thyroid hormone inhibits it.

Adrenocorticotropic hormone ACTH stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids. ACTH release is triggered by corticotropin-releasing hormone CRH and inhibited rising levels of glucocorticoids.

Gonadotropic hormones - follicle-stimulating hormone FSH and luteinizing hormone LH regulates the function of the gonads in both sexes. FSH stimulates production of gametes, stimulates the production of gonadal luteinizing hormones. The level of gonadotropin growth hormone in response to gonadotropin-releasing hormone GnRH. Negative feedback of gonadal hormones inhibits gonadotropin release.

prolactin promotes milk production in women. Its secretion caused by prolactin-releasing hormone prh and inhibited by the prolactin-inhibiting hormone Rin.

The intermediate lobe of the pituitary secretes only one enzyme that stimulates the melanocyte hormoneMSH. This is due to the formation of black pigment in our skin called melanin.

The neurohypophysis stores and releases two hypothalamic hormones:

  • Oxytocin stimulates powerful uterine contractions, which trigger labor and delivery of an infant, and milk ejection in nursing women. Its release is mediated reflexively by the hypothalamus and represents a positive feedback mechanism.
  • Antidiuretic hormone ADH stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb and conserve water, resulting in small volumes of highly concentrated urine and decreased plasma osmolarity. ADH is released in response to high solute concentrations in the blood and inhibited by low solute concentrations in the blood. Hyposecretion results in diabetes insipidus.

Many organs of the body that are not normally considered endocrine organs contain isolated cell clusters that secrete hormones. Examples include the heart, atrial natriuretic peptide, gastrointestinal tract, placenta, kidneys erythropoietin and renin, thymus, cholecalciferol skin and adipose tissue leptin and resistin.

                                     
  • An endocrine gland neoplasm is a neoplasm affecting one or more glands of the endocrine system. Examples include: Adrenal tumor Pituitary adenoma The most
  • major endocrine glands are the thyroid gland and the adrenal glands In vertebrates, the hypothalamus is the neural control center for all endocrine systems
  • A gland is a group of cells in an animal s body that synthesizes substances such as hormones for release into the bloodstream endocrine gland or into
  • speaking, endocrine disorders may be subdivided into three groups: Endocrine gland hyposecretion leading to hormone deficiency Endocrine gland hypersecretion
  • Play media In vertebrate anatomy, the pituitary gland or hypophysis, is an endocrine gland about the size of a pea and weighing 0.5 grams 0.018 oz
  • Endocrine surgery is a surgical sub - speciality focusing on surgery of the endocrine glands including the thyroid gland the parathyroid glands the adrenal
  • sebaceous, and mucous. Exocrine glands are one of two types of glands in the human body, the other being endocrine glands which secrete their products
  • eccrine glands See List of human endocrine organs and actions Anil Ghom, Shubhange Mhaske. Oral pathology p. Glossary, 837. Eccrine glands have no
  • main endocrine glands parathyroid, pituitary, and pancreatico - duodenum Tumors can also develop in organs and tissues other than endocrine glands If
  • The term multiple endocrine neoplasia encompasses several distinct syndromes featuring tumors of endocrine glands each with its own characteristic pattern
  • The pineal gland conarium, or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the brain of most vertebrates. The pineal gland produces melatonin, a serotonin - derived