ⓘ Glutamate dehydrogenase

                                     

ⓘ Glutamate dehydrogenase

Glutamate dehydrogenase is an enzyme, present in most microbes and the mitochondria of eukaryotes, as are some of the other enzymes required for urea synthesis, that converts glutamate to α-ketoglutarate, and vice versa. In animals, the produced ammonia is usually used as a substrate in the urea cycle. Typically, the α-ketoglutarate to glutamate reaction does not occur in mammals, as glutamate dehydrogenase equilibrium favours the production of ammonia and α-ketoglutarate. Glutamate dehydrogenase also has a very low affinity for ammonia, and therefore toxic levels of ammonia would have to be present in the body for the reverse reaction to proceed +). However, in brain, the NAD+/NADH ratio in brain mitochondria encourages oxidative deamination. In bacteria, the ammonia is assimilated to amino acids via glutamate and aminotransferases. In plants, the enzyme can work in either direction depending on environment and stress. Transgenic plants expressing microbial GLDHs are improved in tolerance to herbicide, water deficit, and pathogen infections. They are more nutritionally valuable.

The enzyme represents a key link between catabolic and anabolic pathways, and, therefore, ubiquitous in eukaryotes. In humans these genes are called glutamatdekarboksilazy 1 of GLUD1 and GLUD2 of glutamatdekarboksilazy 2, and at least 8 speed pseudogenes in the human genome and probably reflects the microbial impact on the evolution of eukaryotes.

                                     
  • dehydrogenase L - glutamate dehydrogenase L - glutamic acid dehydrogenase NAD P - glutamate dehydrogenase NAD P H - dependent glutamate dehydrogenase
  • GLUD1 glutamate dehydrogenase 1 is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme, one of the family of glutamate dehydrogenases that are ubiquitous in life, with a key
  • In enzymology, a glutamate - 5 - semialdehyde dehydrogenase EC 1.2.1.41 is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction L - glutamate 5 - semialdehyde phosphate
  • Glutamate dehydrogenase 2, mitochondrial, also known as GDH 2, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GLUD2 gene. This dehydrogenase is one of
  • In enzymology, a saccharopine dehydrogenase NADP L - glutamate - forming EC 1.5.1.10 is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N6 - L - 1
  • molecular biology, the ELFV dehydrogenase family of enzymes include glutamate leucine, phenylalanine and valine dehydrogenases These enzymes are structurally
  • class is L - glutamate oxygen oxidoreductase deaminating Other names in common use include glutamate acceptor dehydrogenase glutamate oxidase, glutamic
  • Glutamate dehydrogenase pseudogene 5, also known as GLUDP5, is a human gene. Human PubMed Reference: National Center for Biotechnology Information
  • produced in neurons is fixed into α - ketoglutarate by the glutamate - dehydrogenase reaction to form glutamate then transaminated by alanine aminotransferase into
  • In enzymology, a saccharopine dehydrogenase NAD L - glutamate - forming EC 1.5.1.9 is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction N6 - L - 1