ⓘ Generic top-level domain

.name

The domain name is a generic top-level domain in the Domain Name System of the Internet. It is intended for use by individuals for representation of their personal name, nicknames, screen names, pseudonyms, or other types of identification labels. The top-level domain was founded by Hakon Haugnes and Geir Rasmussen and initially delegated to Global Name Registry in 2001, and become fully operational in January 2002. Verisign was the outsourced operator for.name since the.name launch in 2002 and acquired Global Name Registry in 2008. Subdomains of name may be registered at the second-level ...

.arpa

The domain name arpa is a top-level domain in the Domain Name System of the Internet used exclusively for technical infrastructure purposes. The name was originally a reference to the precursor of the Internet, ARPANET, from which the domain was intended to facilitate the transition to DNS, but it now stands for Address and Routing Parameter Area. arpa also contains the domains for reverse domain name resolution in-addr.arpa and ip6.arpa for IPv4 and IPv6, respectively.

.biz

.biz is a generic top-level domain in the Domain Name System of the Internet. It is intended for registration of domains to be used by businesses. The name is a phonetic spelling of the first syllable of business.

.coop

The domain coop is a sponsored top-level domain in the Domain Name System of the Internet. It is intended for the use of cooperatives, their wholly owned subsidiaries, and other organizations that exist to promote or support cooperatives. The coop TLD was proposed by the National Cooperative Business Association NCBA as a response to the announcement by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICANN in late 2000 of a phased release of seven new generic top-level domains in an expansion of the Internet domain name space. The proposal was backed by many cooperatives and simila ...

.jobs

The domain name jobs is a sponsored top-level domain in the Domain Name System of the Internet. As indicated by its name, the domain is restricted to employment-related sites. The domain was approved by ICANN on April 8, 2005 as part of the second group of new TLD applications submitted in 2004. It was installed in the DNS root in September 2005, and began accepting registrations later in the year.

.travel

The domain name.travel is a top-level domain in the Domain Name System of the Internet.travel domain names are available to individuals and / or organizations who provides or plans to provide services, products or content in or to the travel industry. It is sponsored by Donuts Inc. Registrations are processed via accredited registrars.

                                     

ⓘ Generic top-level domain

Generic top-level domains are one of the categories of top-level domains maintained by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority for use in the Domain Name System of the Internet. A top-level domain is the last level of every fully qualified domain name. They are called generic for historic reasons; initially, they were contrasted with country-specific TLDs in RFC 920.

The core group of generic top-level domains consists of the com, info, net, and org domains. In addition, the domains name, and pro are also considered generic ; however, these are designated as restricted, because registrations within them require proof of eligibility within the guidelines set for each.

Historically, the group of generic top-level domains included domains, created in the early development of the domain name system, that are now sponsored by designated agencies or organizations and are restricted to specific types of registrants. Thus, domains edu, gov, int, and mil are now considered sponsored top-level domains, much like the themed top-level domains e.g., jobs. The entire group of domains that do not have a geographic or country designation see country-code top-level domain is still often referred to by the term generic TLDs.

The number of gTLD as of March 2018 exceeds 1.200 domains.

                                     

1. Types

Overall, IANA distinguishes the following groups of top-level domains:

  • restricted generic top-level domains grTLD
  • country code top-level domains ccTLD
  • sponsored top-level domains sTLD
  • internationalized country code top-level domains IDN ccTLD
  • generic top-level domains gTLD
  • internationalized top-level domains IDNs
  • infrastructure top-level domain arpa
  • testing top-level domains tTLD
                                     

2. History

The initial set of generic top-level domains, defined by RFC 920 in October 1984, was a set of "general purpose domains": com, edu, gov, mil, org. The net domain was added with the first implementation of these domains. The com, net, and org TLDs, despite their originally specified goals, are now open to use for any purpose.

In November 1988, another TLD was introduced, int. This TLD was introduced in response to NATOs request for a domain name which adequately reflected its character as an international organization. It was also originally planned to be used for some Internet infrastructure databases, such as ip6.int, the IPv6 equivalent of in-addr.arpa. However, in May 2000, the Internet Architecture Board proposed to exclude infrastructure databases from the int domain. All new databases of this type would be created in arpa a legacy domain from the conversion of ARPANET, and existing usage would move to arpa wherever feasible, which led to the use of ip6.arpa for IPv6 reverse lookups.

By the mid-1990s there was discussion of introduction of more TLDs. Jon Postel, as head of IANA, invited applications from interested parties. In early 1995, Postel created "Draft Postel", an Internet draft containing the procedures to create new domain name registries and new TLDs. Draft Postel created a number of small committees to approve the new TLDs. Because of the increasing interest, a number of large organizations took over the process under the Internet Societys umbrella. This second attempt involved setting up a temporary organization called the International Ad Hoc Committee IAHC. On February 4, 1997, the IAHC issued a report ignoring the Draft Postel recommendations and instead recommending the introduction of seven new TLDs. However, these proposals were abandoned after the U.S. government intervened.

In September 1998, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICANN was created to take over the task of managing domain names. After a call for proposals August 15, 2000 and a brief period of public consultation, ICANN announced on November 16, 2000 its selection of seven new TLDs: aero, biz, coop, info, museum, name, pro.

biz, info, and museum were activated in June 2001, name and coop in January 2002, pro in May 2002, and aero later in 2002. pro became a gTLD in May 2002, but did not become fully operational until June 2004.

ICANN added further TLDs, starting with a set of sponsored top-level domains. The application period for these was from December 15, 2003 to March 16, 2004; it resulted in ten applications. Of these, ICANN approved asia, cat, jobs, mobi, tel and travel. In March 2011, xxx was approved one year after an independent review found ICANN had broken its own bylaws by rejecting the application in 2007. Of the remaining applications post, mail and an alternative tel proposal, post was introduced in 2012.

On June 26, 2008, during the 32nd International Public ICANN Meeting in Paris, ICANN started a new process of TLD naming policy to take a "significant step forward on the introduction of new generic top-level domains." This program envisioned the availability of many new or already proposed domains, as well as a new application and implementation process. Observers believed that the new rules could result in hundreds of new gTLDs being registered.

                                     

2.1. History New top-level domains

The introduction of several generic top-level domains over the years had not stopped the demand for more gTLDs; ICANN received many proposals for establishment of new top-level domains. Proponents argued for a variety of models, ranging from adoption of policies for unrestricted gTLDs see above to chartered gTLDs for specialized uses by specialized organizations.

In 2008, a new initiative foresaw a stringent application process for new domains, adhering to a restricted naming policy for open gTLDs, community-based domains, and internationalized domain names IDNs. According to a guidebook published by ICANN, a community-based gTLD is "a gTLD that is operated for the benefit of a defined community consisting of a restricted population." All other domains fall under the category open gTLD, which "is one that can be used for any purpose consistent with the requirements of the application and evaluation criteria, and with the registry agreement. An open gTLD may or may not have a formal relationship with an exclusive registrant or user population. It may or may not employ eligibility or use restrictions."

The establishment of new gTLDs under this program required the management of registrar relationships, the operation of a domain registry, and demonstration of technical as well as financial capacity for such operations.

A fourth version of the draft applicant guidebook DAG4 was published in May 2011. On June 20, 2011, ICANNs board voted to end most restrictions on the creation of generic top-level domain names gTLDs -- at which time 22 gTLDs were available. Companies and organizations would be able to choose essentially arbitrary top-level Internet domains. The use of non-Latin characters would also be allowed in gTLDs. ICANN began accepting applications for new gTLDs on January 12, 2012. A survey by registrar Melbourne IT considered entertainment and financial services brands most likely to apply for new gTLDs for their brands. The initial price to apply for a new gTLD was $185.000. ICANN expected that the first batch of new gTLDs would be operational by September 2013. ICANN expected the new rules to significantly change the face of the internet. Peter Thrush, chairman of ICANNs board of directors, stated after the vote: "Todays decision will usher in a new internet age. We have provided a platform for the next generation of creativity and inspiration. Unless there is a good reason to restrain it, innovation should be allowed to run free." Industry analysts predicted 500–1000 new gTLDs, mostly reflecting names of companies and products, but also cities, and generic names like bank and sport. According to Theo Hnarakis, chief executive of Melbourne IT, the decision would "allow corporations to better take control of their brands. For example, apple or ipad would take customers right to those products." In agreement, Nick Wood, Managing Director of Valideus, suggested "Your own gTLD demonstrates confidence and vision and may accelerate your brand and its value. An internet address at the Top Level is far better than registration at the low rent Second Level." However, some companies, like Pepsi, ruled out a branded gTLD.



                                     

3. Terminology

Unrestricted generic top-level domains are those domains that are available for registrations by any person or organization for any use. The prominent gTLDs in this group are com, net, org, and info. However, info was the only one of these, and the first, that was explicitly chartered as unrestricted. The others initially had a specific target audience. However, due to lack of enforcement, they acquired an unrestricted character, which was later grandfathered.

                                     

3.1. Terminology Sponsored gTLD

The term sponsored top-level domain is derived from the fact that these domains are based on theme concepts proposed by private agencies or organizations that establish and enforce rules restricting the eligibility of registrants to use the TLD. For example, the aero TLD is sponsored by the Societe Internationale de Telecommunications Aeronautiques, which limits registrations to members of the air-transport industry.

The new gTLD programme saw the arrival of many such top-level domains, with a restricted open policy, eligible to those active in a regulated industry, such as.pharma or.bank, or in other industrial domains such as.safety

                                     

3.2. Terminology Geographic gTLD

A geographic TLD or GeoTLD is a generic top-level domain using the name of or invoking an association with a geographical, geopolitical, ethnic, linguistic or cultural community. As of 2009, only two GeoTLDs existed: the sponsored domains.cat, for the Catalan language and culture and.asia ; as of 2014 there were many more, including.kiwi.paris.scot and.gal, but many others are being added regularly.



                                     

3.3. Terminology Brand gTLD

Brands have also applied to get their brand as a top-level domain. Specification 13 is an addendum to the registry contract that describes specific provisions to brands to run their Top Level Domain in a closed fashion. 517 applications to qualify to Spec 13 were made to ICANN, 36 requests were rejected by ICANN or withdrawn by the applicant, 4 are pending review.

In 2018, Spamhaus rated.men as the worst top-level domain in terms of spam and scamming.men comes top with 60.6% of its 73.000 domains identified as "bad", resulting in a badness index of 6.48. The company that runs.men, Famous Four Media also runs the third worst registry -.loan – with 59 per cent bad domains and a 6.22 index.

                                     

4. Expansion of gTLDs

The new generic top level domain gTLD application system opened on January 12, 2012. The application window was initially to close on April 12, 2012. However ICANNs Chief Operating Officer, Akram Atallah, stated there was a glitch in the TLD application system leaving applicants information visible to others. The system was shut down to protect applicants information, and measures were taken to resolve the situation.

ICANN re-opened the TLD Application System on May 21, allowing applicants to submit and review their applications until May 30, 2012.

On "Reveal Day" June 13, 2012, it was announced that ICANN received about 1.930 applications for new gTLDs, 751 of which were contested.

It was expected for the new gTLDs to go live in June 2013. However, as of March 2013 only non Latin domains have gone through Initial Evaluation. The updated timeline suggested the new TLDs will go live in November 2013. On November 26, first seven new generic top-level domains.bike.clothing.guru.holdings.plumbing.singles, and.ventures, have entered the Sunrise period.

A lottery was held in December 2012 to determine the order in which ICANN would evaluate the 1.930 applications.

After the Application Window there was a public comment period from June 13, 2012, to September 26, 2012, in which the public could express their views on the individual new gTLD applications submitted.

Concerns were raised over Closed Generic applications in which the applicant would be the sole registrant for the TLD. In particular objections were raised by publishers over Amazons.book application.

Of the technology giants, Google has filed for 101 new gTLDs, Amazon comes 2nd with 76, and Microsoft has filed for 11. The more specialized domain name companies include Donuts submitting the most 307 applications and Uniregistry pursuing 54 gTLDs.

On July 30, 2018, whistleblower and writer for the Register Kieran McCarthy exposed the systematic refusal of ICANN to create the.islam and.halal gTLDs through the willful breaking of the organizations own bylaws. McCarthy coined the 6-year refusal as "the internets very own Muslim ban" after ICANN kowtowed to Middle Eastern governments by not approving the domain name additions.



                                     

4.1. Expansion of gTLDs New gTLD launches

On July 15, 2013, the first four new gTLD agreements were signed in Durban, South Africa. They all consisted of Top Level Domains in non-Latin characters:

  • Core Associations сайт, Russian for "site"
  • Core Associations онлайн, Russian for "online"
  • Spring Fields, LLCs 游戏, Chinese for "game"
  • International Domain Registry Pty. Ltd.s شبكة, Arabic for "web" or "network"

On July 10, 2014 the 330th gTLD was delegated. On November 9, 2014, the 400th gTLD was delegated in the root. As of 3 May 2015, the number of new gTLDs available is 605.

The most popular gTLD has been.guru, launched in February 2014 and reaching 50.000 domains in April 2014, briefly surpassed by.club between June 2 and June 9, 2014, with around 55.000 domains;.club was then surpassed by.xyz, which had more than 300.000 domains after one and a half months of existence. The growth of.xyz has been concentrated on one registrar due to a promotion they ran. Recently, SBI bank has started using gTLD as "Bank.SBI" on February 20, 2017.

                                     

4.2. Expansion of gTLDs Technical issues

Some browsers and software applications do not properly recognize new gTLDs as top-level domains. For example, some browsers do not recognize many new gTLDs and instead treat them as a search query. Prefixing the domain with "http://", or including a trailing slash, will usually force the browser to perform a DNS lookup rather than a search.

                                     

4.3. Expansion of gTLDs Criticism

Following the vote to expand gTLDs, many trade associations and large companies, led by the Association of National Advertisers, formed the Coalition for Responsible Internet Domain Oversight. The coalition opposes the expansion of gTLDs, citing "its deeply flawed justification, excessive cost and harm to brand owners." In a statement to the US Congress on December 9, 2011, National Restaurant Association vice president Scott DeFife stated, "Even beyond the financial toll the gTLD program will exact on millions of U.S. businesses, the Association believes that ICANN’s program will confuse consumers by spreading Internet searches across hundreds or even thousands of new top-level domains."

Another opponent is Esther Dyson, the founding chairperson of ICANN, who wrote that the expansion "will create jobs but little extra value."