ⓘ National cinema

Cinema of Australia

The Cinema of Australia had its beginnings with the 1906 production of The Story of the Kelly Gang, the earliest feature film ever made. Since then, Australian crews have produced many films, a number of which have received international recognition. Many actors and filmmakers started their careers in Australian films, many of whom have acquired international reputations, and a number of whom have found greater financial benefits in careers in larger film-producing centres, such as in the United States. The first public screenings of films in Australia took place in October 1896, within a ...

Cinema of Austria

Cinema of Austria refers to the film industry based in Austria. Austria has had an active cinema industry since the early 20th century when it was the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and that has continued to the present day. Producer Sascha Kolowrat-Krakowsky, producer-director-writer Luise Kolm and the Austro-Hungarian directors Michael Curtiz and Alexander Korda were among the pioneers of early Austrian cinema. Several Austrian directors pursued careers in Weimar Germany and later in the United States, among them Fritz Lang, G. W. Pabst, Josef von Sternberg, Billy Wilder, Fred Zinnemann, and O ...

Cinema of Asia

Asian cinema refers to the film industries and films produced in the continent of Asia, and is also sometimes known as Eastern cinema. More commonly, however, it is most often used to refer to the cinema of Eastern, Southeastern and Southern Asia. West Asian cinema is sometimes classified as part of Middle Eastern cinema, along with the cinema of Egypt. The cinema of Central Asia is often grouped with the Middle East or, in the past, the cinema of the Soviet Union during the Soviet Central Asia era. North Asia is dominated by Siberian Russian cinema, and is thus considered part of European ...

Cinema of Albania

The Cinema of Albania refers to the film industry based in Albania and comprises the art of films and movies made within the country or by Albanian directors abroad. Albania has had an active cinema industry since 1897 and began strong activities in 1940 after the foundation of both the Kinostudio Shqiperia Re and National Center of Cinematography in Tirana. Early Albanian films were introduced in Albania in 1909 by painter and photographer Kole Idromeno in Shkoder. Afterwards, the first public screening of foreign films took place over the years. The motion pictures have won international ...

Cinema of Algeria

During the era of French colonization, movies were predominantly a propaganda tool for the French colonial state. Although filmed in Algeria and viewed by the local population, the vast majority of "Algerian" cinema in this era was created by Europeans. The colonial propaganda films themselves generally depicted a stereotypically image of pastoral life in the colony, often focusing on an aspect of local culture that the administration sought to change, such as polygamy. One example of such a film is Albert Durecs 1928 Le Desir. Popular French cinema filmed or set in Algeria often echoed ma ...

Cinema of Argentina

Cinema of Argentina refers to the film industry based in Argentina. The Argentine cinema comprises the art of film and creative movies made within the nation of Argentina or by Argentine filmmakers abroad. The Argentine film industry has historically been one of the three most developed in Latin American cinema, along with those produced in Mexico and Brazil. Throughout the 20th century, film production in Argentina, supported by the State and by the work of a long list of directors and actors, became one of the major film industries in the Spanish-speaking world. Argentina has won sixteen ...

                                     

ⓘ National cinema

National cinema is a term sometimes used in film theory and film criticism to describe the films associated with a specific nation-state. Although there is little relatively written on theories of national cinema it has an irrefutably important role in globalization. Film provides a unique window to other cultures, particularly where the output of a nation or region is high. Countries like South Korea, Russia and Iran have over the years produced a large body of critically acclaimed films. Regardless of the stories or styles of filmmaking the medium inherently contains a dense wealth of information about people and places through which audiences gain knowledge.

Like other film theory or film criticism terms e.g., "art film", the term "national cinema" is hard to define, and its meaning is debated by film scholars and critics. A film may be considered to be part of a "national cinema" based on a number of factors. Simply put, a "nations cinema" can be attributed to the country that provided the financing for the film, the language spoken in the film, the nationalities or dress of the characters, and the setting, music, or cultural elements present in the film. To define a national cinema, some scholars emphasize the structure of the film industry and the roles played by ".market forces, government support, and cultural transfers." More theoretically, national cinema can refer to a large group of films, or "a body of textuality. given historical weight through common intertextual symptoms, or coherencies". In Theorising National Cinema, Philip Rosen suggests national cinema is a conceptualization of: 1 Selected national films/texts themselves, the relationship between them, which be connected by a shared general symptom. 2 an understanding of the nation as an entity in synchronicity with its symptom. And 3 an understanding of past or traditional symptoms, also known as history or historiography, which contribute to current systems and symptoms. These symptoms of intertextuality could refer to style, medium, content, narrative, narrative structure, costume, Mise-en-scene, character, background, cinematography. It could refer to cultural background of those who make the movie and cultural background of those in the movie, of spectatorship, of spectacle.

                                     

1. Canada

Canadian cultural and film critics have long debated how Canadian national cinema can be defined, or whether there is a Canadian national cinema. Most of the films shown on Canadian movie screens are US imports. If "Canadian national cinema" is defined as the films made in Canada, then the canon of Canadian cinema would have to include lightweight teen-oriented fare such as Meatballs 1979, Porkys 1983 or Death Ship 1980. Other critics have defined Canadian national cinema as a ".reflection of Canadian life and culture." Some critics argue that there are "two traditions of filmmaking in Canada." The "documentary realist tradition" espoused by the federal governments National Film Board and avant-garde films.

Scott MacKenzie argues that by the late 1990s, if Canada did have a popular cinema with both avant-garde and experimental elements, that was influenced by European filmmakers such as Jean-Luc Godard and Wim Wenders. MacKenzie argues that Canadian cinema has a ".self-conscious concern with the incorporation of cinematic and televisual images", and as examples, he cites films such as David Cronenbergs Videodrome 1983, Atom Egoyans Family Viewing 1987, Robert Lepages The Confessional Le Confessionnal 1995 and Srinivas Krishnas Masala 1991.

                                     

2. France

Frances national cinema includes both popular cinema and "avant-garde" films. French national cinema is associated with the auteur filmmakers and with a variety of specific movements. Avant-garde filmmakers include Germaine Dulac, Marie and Jean Epstein. Poetic Realism filmmakers include Jean Renoir and Marcel Carne. The French New Wave filmmakers include Jean-Luc Godard and François Truffaut. The 1990s and 2000s "postmodern cinema" of France includes filmmakers such as Jean-Jacques Beinex, Luc Besson and Coline Serreau.

                                     

3. Germany

During the German Weimar Republic, German national cinema was influenced by silent and sound "Bergfilm" this translates to "mountain film". During the 1920s and early 1930s, German national cinema was known for the progressive and artistic approaches to filmmaking with "shifted conventional cinematic vocabulary" and which gave actresses a much larger range of character-types. During the Nazi era, the major film studio UFA was controlled by Propaganda Minister Goebbels. UFA produced "Hetzfilme" anti-Semitic hate films and films which emphasized the "theme of heroic death." Other film genres produced by UFA during the Nazi era included historical and biographical dramas that emphasized the achievements in German history, comedy films, and propaganda films.

During the Cold War from the 1950s through the 1980s, there were West German films and East German films. Film historians and film scholars do not agree whether the films from the different parts of Cold War-era Germany can be considered to be a single "German national cinema." Some West German films were about the "immediate past in sociopolitical thought and in literature". East German films were often Soviet-funded "socially critical" films. Some East German films examined Germanys Nazi past, such as Wolfgang Staudtes Die Morder sind unter uns The Murderers Are Among Us.

The New German Cinema of the 1970s and 1980s included films by directors such as Fassbinder, Herzog, and Wim Wenders. While these directors made films with "many ideological and cinematic messages", they all shared the common element of providing an "aesthetic alternative to Hollywood" films and "a break with the cultural and political traditions associated with the Third Reich"159.



                                     

4. Poland

After World War II, the Lodz Film School was founded in 1948. During the 1950s and 1960s, a "Polish School" of filmmakers developed, such as Wojciech Has, Kazimierz Kutz, Andrzej Munk and Andrzej Wajda. According to film scholar Marek Haltof, the Polish School of directors made films which can be described as the "Cinema of Distrust." In the late 1970s and early 1980s, Wajda, Krzysztof Zanussi and Barbara Sass made influential films which garnered interest outside of Poland. However, even though Western countries became increasingly interested in Polish cinema during this period, the countrys film infrastructure and market was disintegrating.

                                     

5. Mexico

Although it is difficult to determine and define a national cinema, much of what many consider Mexican national cinema, but not limited to, is Golden Age of Mexican Cinema and films that revolve around the Mexican Revolution. Unique trajectories of Mexican cinemas development shaped historically specific understandings of the ontology of the moving image, leading to unique configurations of documentation and fictionalization. The Revolution spilled across pages of the press, and became the primary subject of Mexican films produced between 1911 and 1916. There was a high interest in topicality in and capturing current events as they unfolded, re-staging, or combining both approaching, created a sensationalist appeal in these visual records of death and injury. Compilation documentaries, such as Toscanos Memorias de un Mexicano in the years following the Mexican Revolution can be seen as part of a broader cultural politics of nationalism that worked to naturalize and to consolidate the political and ideological story of the revolution.

Later narrativized dramas, such as Maria Candelaria, The Pearl film, Enamorada film, Rio Escondido, Saian Mexico, or Pueblerina by Emilio Fernandez and/or Gabriel Figueroa, are often considered part of the Mexican national cinematic body. These films, and most popular films of the 1920s in Mexico, adopted David Bordwells "cinematic norms": narrative linkage, cause and effect, goal oriented protagonists, temporal order or cinematic time, and filmic space as story space. But also, is noted to have incorporated visual folkloric style of Jose Guadalupe Posada, the deconstructing landscapes of Gerardo Murillo, and the low angles, deep focus, diagonal lines, and native imagery in Sergei Eisensteins Que Viva Mexico! Although a melange of Western and Mexican influences coexist in Fernandezs films, his Mexican biography and locality leave a legacy of romanticizing Mexico and Mexican history, often presenting idyllic ranches, singing, and a charming life of the poor.

Although of European heritage, Louis Buñuels work in Mexico is another example that presents symptoms of Mexican national identity. Although less well received by lower classes, and more admired by upper classes, Buñuels Los Olvidados stands as an example that a directors national heritage doesnt always have to contribute to the conceptualization of a nations cinema. Rather than building the nation through celebration, the film presents problem, which contribute to a global identity and context of the nation state. Buñuel, however, is less interested in presenting some identity of message, national or international, and remarked that "to ask whether the film is Mexican or not, is to resist, to seek, to disperse, the very mystery this film articulates for us".

Modern genres embraced and nurtured as Mexican national cinema are often those of the social and family melodrama genre, such as Como agua para chocolate 1991 by Alfonso Arau, the working class melodrama i.e. Danzon in 1991 by Maria Novaro, the comedy i.e. Solo con tu pareja, 1991, Alfonso Cuaron and the rural costumbrismo film i.e. La mujer de Benjamin, 1990, by Carlos Carrera. Changes in the politics of film industry institutions allowed these film texts and their directors to "transform the traditional filmic paradigm". Up to 60% of financial assistance for national, Latin American, and European productions were provided by the Instituto Mexicano de Cinematografia, new models of co-production were created, and distribution and sales channels were opened abroad.