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Eric Volz

Eric Volz is an American entrepreneur, author, and the managing director of The David House Agency, an international crisis resource agency based in Los Angeles. The New York Times recognized Volz as a highly sought crisis manager. He specializes ...

Nora Wall

Nora Wall is a former Irish sister of the Sisters of Mercy who was wrongfully convicted of rape in June 1999, and served four days of a life sentence in July 1999, before her conviction was quashed. She was officially declared the victim of a mis ...

Gunter Weigand

Gunter Weigand is a self-proclaimed" social lawyer”, economist and amateur prosecutor who became victim of a judicial and psychiatric scandal. Heinrich Boll and the German expert in criminal law Karl Peters among others made it possible, that the ...

Libertà condizionata

Article 176 of the Italian Criminal Code concerns libertà condizionata According to the provisions of Article 176, an incarcerated person becomes eligible for a grant of libertà condizionata if he or she satisfies at least the following condition ...

Priyadarshini Mattoo

Priyadarshini Mattoo was a 25-year-old law student who was found raped and murdered at her house in New Delhi on 23 January 1996. On 17 October 2006, the Delhi High Court found Santosh Kumar Singh guilty on both counts of rape and murder and on 3 ...

Parole and Probation Administration (Philippines)

The Parole and Probation Administration, abbreviated as PPA, is an agency of the Philippine government under the Department of Justice responsible for providing a less costly alternative to imprisonment of first-time offenders who are likely to r ...

Parole board

A parole board is a panel of people who decide whether an offender should be released from prison on parole after serving at least a minimum portion of their sentence as prescribed by the sentencing judge. Parole boards are used in many jurisdict ...

Parole Board for England and Wales

The Parole Board for England and Wales was established in 1968 under the Criminal Justice Act 1967. It became an independent executive non-departmental public body on 1 July 1996 under the Criminal Justice and Public Order Act 1994. The Parole Bo ...

Parole Board for Scotland

The Parole Board for Scotland is a tribunal non-departmental public body in Scotland first established in 1967, with responsibility for parole decisions. Its decision making and operating are independent of the Scottish Government, and many of it ...

Parole bond

A parole bond is a deposit of money or property made to the government as surety that a paroled prisoner will not violate the terms of his release. The prisoner may fund the bond himself; or he may borrow from friends or family; or he may obtain ...

Probation of Offenders Act 1907

The Act was passed on 21 August 1907 and originally extended throughout the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. It remains in force in the Republic of Ireland.

South Carolina Department of Probation, Parole, and Pardon Services

The South Carolina Department of Probation, Parole, and Pardon Services is a state agency in the state of South Carolina in the United States of America. The agency was formed in 1941 as the South Carolina Probation and Parole Board. At that time ...

United States Parole Commission Extension Act of 2013

The United States Parole Commission Extension Act of 2013 is a federal law that extended the existence of the United States Parole Commission an additional five years until November 2018. The law also requires the Commission to file a report with ...

Anathema

Anathema, in common usage, is something or someone that is detested or shunned. In its other main usage, it is a formal excommunication. The latter meaning, its ecclesiastical sense, is based on New Testament usage. In the Old Testament, anathema ...

Apostolicae Sedis moderationi

Apostolicae Sedis moderationi was a papal bull issued by Pope Pius IX on 12 October 1869, which revised the list of censures that in canon law were imposed automatically on offenders. It reduced their number and clarified those preserved. As is c ...

Canon 1324

Canon 1324 is a canon of the 1983 Code of Canon Law, according to which penalties prescribed in canon law must be diminished or replaced by a penance. The canon does not automatically remove the penalty completely except in cases of latae sentent ...

Canon 1398

Canon 1398 is a rule of canon law of the Catholic Church which declares that "a person who procures a completed abortion incurs a latae sententiae excommunication."

Canonical situation of the Society of Saint Pius X

The canonical situation of the Society of Saint Pius X, a group founded in 1970 by Archbishop Marcel Lefebvre, is unresolved. The Society of Saint Pius X has been the subject of much controversy since 1988, when Bernard Fellay, Bernard Tissier de ...

Censure

A censure is an expression of strong disapproval or harsh criticism. In parliamentary procedure, it is a debatable main motion that could be adopted by a majority vote. Among the forms that it can take are a stern rebuke by a legislature, a spiri ...

Censure (canon law)

A censure, in the canon law of the Catholic Church, is a medicinal and spiritual punishment imposed by the church on a baptized, delinquent, and contumacious person, by which he is deprived, either wholly of in part, of the use of certain spiritu ...

Complicit absolution

Complicit absolution is an offense in Roman Catholic canon law consisting of the absolution of a party complicit with the absolving priest in an offense. Because it constitutes the abuse of a sacrament, it is held to be sacrilege. A notable case ...

Crimen sollicitationis

Crimen sollicitationis is the title of a 1962 document of the Holy Office codifying procedures to be followed in cases of priests or bishops of the Catholic Church accused of having used the sacrament of Penance to make sexual advances to peniten ...

De delictis gravioribus

De delictis gravioribus was a letter written on 18 May 2001 by then Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger, Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, to all the Bishops of the Catholic Church and the other Ordinaries concerned, including thos ...

Defrocking

Defrocking, unfrocking, or laicization of clergy is the removal of their rights to exercise the functions of the ordained ministry. It may be grounded on criminal convictions, disciplinary problems, or disagreements over doctrine or dogma, but ma ...

List of excommunicable offences in the Catholic Church

This is a list, in chronological order, of present and past offences to which the Roman Catholic Church has attached the penalty of excommunication; the list is not exhaustive. In most cases these were "automatic excommunications", wherein the vi ...

Ecclesiastical prison

It is plain from many decrees in the Corpus Juris Canonici that the Roman Catholic Church has claimed and exercised the right, belonging to a perfect and visible society, of protecting its members by condemning the guilty to imprisonment. The obj ...

Excommunication

Excommunication is an institutional act of religious censure used to end or at least regulate the communion of a member of a congregation with other members of the religious institution who are in normal communion with each other. The purpose of ...

Interdict

In Catholic canon law, an interdict is an ecclesiastical censure, or ban that prohibits persons, certain active Church individuals or groups from participating in certain rites, or that the rites and services of the church are banished from havin ...

Internal and external forum

In the canon law of the Catholic Church, a distinction is made between the internal forum, where an act of governance is made without publicity, and the external forum, where the act is public and verifiable. In canon law, internal forum, the rea ...

Latae sententiae

Latae sententiae is a Latin phrase, meaning "sentence passed", used in the canon law of the Catholic Church. A latae sententiae penalty is one that follows ipso facto or automatically, by force of the law itself, when a law is contravened. A pena ...

Life of prayer and penance (penalty)

In the Roman Catholic Church, imposing a life of prayer and penance is a type of penalty used to punish clergy for crimes and misconduct. It is typically imposed on elderly priests as opposed to younger priests, who may face harsher penalties.

Loss of clerical state (Catholic Church)

In the canon law of the Catholic Church, the loss of the clerical state is the removal of a bishop, priest or deacon from the status of being a member of the clergy. The term defrocking, though used colloquially to describe a loss of clerical sta ...

Monitum

A monitum is a warning issued by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to an errant cleric, who is in danger of receiving an additional penalty.

Suspension (canonical penalty)

Suspension, in canon law, according to Roman Catholic doctrine and practice, is a censure or punishment, by which a priest or cleric is deprived, entirely or partially, of the use of the power of orders, office, or benefice. When a suspension is ...

Vitandus

A vitandus was someone affected by a rare and grave form of excommunication, in which the Church ordered, as a remedial measure, that the faithful were not to associate with him "except in the case of husband and wife, parents, children, servants ...

Vos estis lux mundi

Vos estis lux mundi is a motu proprio by Pope Francis, promulgated on 9 May 2019. It establishes new procedural norms to combat sexual abuse and to ensure that bishops and religious superiors are held accountable for their actions. It establishes ...

Probation

Probation in criminal law is a period of supervision over an offender, ordered by the court instead of serving time in prison. In some jurisdictions, the term probation applies only to community sentences alternatives to incarceration, such as su ...

Deferred adjudication

A deferred adjudication, also known in some jurisdictions as an adjournment in contemplation of dismissal, probation before judgment, or deferred entry of judgment, is a form of plea deal available in various jurisdictions, where a defendant plea ...

HM Prison and Probation Service

Her Majestys Prison and Probation Service is an executive agency of the Ministry of Justice responsible for the correctional services in England and Wales. It was created in 2004 as the National Offender Management Service by combining parts of b ...

Lifetime probation

Lifetime probation is reserved for relatively serious legal offenders. The ultimate purpose of lifetime probation is to examine whether offenders properly maintain good behavior as well as capability of patience under lifetime probation serving c ...

Napo (trade union)

Napo is the trade union and professional association that represents probation staff including probation officers and other operational and administrative staff and Children and Family Court Advisory and Support Service staff in England. Napo was ...

National Probation Service

The National Probation Service for England and Wales is a statutory criminal justice service, mainly responsible for the supervision of offenders in the community and the provision of reports to the criminal courts to assist them in their sentenc ...

New York City Department of Probation

The New York City Department of Probation is the department of the government of New York City responsible for providing supervision for adults and juveniles placed on probation by judges in the Supreme, Criminal, and Family courts. In addition, ...

Probation in Pakistan

The concept of probation was introduced to Pakistan, then part of British India, in 1923. This initial system amounted to binding over some first-time offenders, without supervision by probation staff, and applied chiefly to young offenders. Refo ...

Private probation

Private probation is the contracting of probation, including rehabilitative services and supervision, to private agencies. These include non-profit organizations and for-profit programs. The Salvation Armys misdemeanor probation services initiate ...

San Diego County Probation Department

The San Diego County Probation Department is the body in San Diego County, California, responsible for supervising convicted offenders in the community, either who are on probation, such as at the conclusion of their sentences, or while on commun ...

Social care in Scotland

Social care in Scotland encompasses social work; care home services in the community for adults, children and young people; and services for young children, including nurseries and after-school care clubs.

Suspended sentence

A suspended sentence is a legal term for a judges delaying of a defendants serving of a sentence after they have been found guilty, in order to allow the defendant to perform a period of probation. If the defendant does not break the law during t ...

Probation in Ukraine

Probation is a system of supervision and social-pedagogic activities over offender, ordered by a Court and in accordance to the legislation; enforcement of certain types of a criminal penalty, not concerned the deprivation of liberty and to provi ...

United States federal probation and supervised release

United States federal probation and supervised release are imposed at sentencing. The difference between probation and supervised release is that the former is imposed as a substitute for imprisonment, or in addition to home detention, while the ...