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Pervear v. Massachusetts

Pervear v. Massachusetts, 72 U.S. 475, was a case brought before the United States Supreme Court in 1866 over the issue of prisoners rights. The court ruled that prisoners have no constitutional rights, not even Eighth Amendment rights. This was ...

Prison

A prison, also known as a correctional facility, jail, gaol, penitentiary, detention center, correctional center, or remand center, is a facility in which inmates are forcibly confined and denied a variety of freedoms under the authority of the s ...

Prison cell

A prison cell, also known as a jail cell, is a small room in a jail, prison or police station where a prisoner is held. Cells greatly vary by their furnishings, hygienic services, and cleanliness, both across countries and based on the level of p ...

Prison education

Prison education is any educational activity that occurs inside prison. Courses can include basic literacy programs, secondary school equivalency programs, vocational education and tertiary education. Other activities such as rehabilitation progr ...

Prison Fellowship International

Prison Fellowship International is a christian international non-governmental organisation of national prison fellowship organizations from 117 countries. The headquarters is in Washington D.C., United States. The president is Andy Corley.

Prison furlough

A prison furlough is when a prisoner is allowed to leave prison and then return. Furloughs can be escorted or unescorted. When the prisoner has to be accompanied by guards, often he is required to pay for these expenses of the furlough. Furloughs ...

Prison healthcare

Before 1775, imprisonment was rarely used as a punishment for crime. Since that year, however, incarceration rates have grown exponentially, creating the need for physicians in correctional institutions. Prison medicine began, in its most rudimen ...

Prison social hierarchy

Prison social hierarchy refers to the social status of prisoners within a correctional facility, and how that status is used to exert power over other inmates. A prisoners place in the hierarchy is determined by a wide array of factors including ...

Prison uniform

A prison uniform is the unified outward appearance of detainees in a situation of imprisonment. It is typically adapted under constraint. Usually a prison uniform consists of a visually distinct garment, which must be worn by an incarcerated pers ...

Prison–industrial complex

The term prison–industrial complex ", derived from the "military–industrial complex" of the 1950s, describes the attribution of the rapid expansion of the US inmate population to the political influence of private prison companies and businesses ...

Prisoners' rights

The rights of civilian and military prisoners are governed by both national and international law. International conventions include the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the United Nations Minimum Rules for the Treatment of P ...

Punitive expedition

A punitive expedition is a military journey undertaken to exile a state or any group of persons outside the borders of the punishing state. It is usually undertaken in response to perceived disobedient or morally wrong behavior, either as revenge ...

Reformatory

A reformatory or reformatory school is a youth detention center or an adult correctional facility popular during the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Western countries. In the United Kingdom and United States, they came out of social concern ...

Rehabilitation Policy

Some early eighteenth and twentieth century prisons were proponents of rehabilitative policies. "Early American prisons, such as those at Auburn, Ossining, and Pittsburgh during the 1820s, implemented rehabilitative principles. These early progra ...

Retributive justice

Retributive justice is a theory of punishment that when an offender breaks the law, justice requires that he or she suffer in return. It also requires that the response to a crime is proportional to the offence. Prevention of future crimes or reh ...

Rookery (slum)

A rookery is a colloquial English term given in the 18th and 19th centuries to a city slum occupied by poor people and frequently also by criminals and prostitutes. Such areas were overcrowded, with low-quality housing and little or no sanitation ...

Royal Commission on Capital Punishment 1864–66

The Royal Commission on Capital Punishment was a royal commission on capital punishment in the United Kingdom which worked from 1864 to 1866. It was chaired by Charles Gordon-Lennox, 6th Duke of Richmond. Commissioners disagreed on the question o ...

Sentencing Guidelines Council

The Sentencing Guidelines Council was a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government, created by s.167 of the Criminal Justice Act 2003. It gave authoritative guidance on sentencing to the courts of England and Wales. It was repl ...

Separate system

The separate system is a form of prison management based on the principle of keeping prisoners in solitary confinement. When first introduced in the early 19th century, the objective of such a prison or "penitentiary" was that of penance by the p ...

Short, sharp shock

The phrase "short, sharp shock" means "a quick, severe punishment." It is an example of alliteration. Although the phrase originated earlier, it was popularised in Gilbert and Sullivans 1885 comic opera The Mikado, where it appears in the song ne ...

Single-celling

Single-celling is the practice of assigning only one inmate to each cell in a prison. John Howard has been credited as establishing the practice of single-celling in the United Kingdom and, by extension, in the United States. In 1957, only 15 pri ...

Trusty system (prison)

The trusty system was a strict system of discipline and security in prisons in parts of the United States that was made compulsory under Mississippi state law but was used in other states as well, such as Arkansas, Alabama, Louisiana, New York an ...

U.S. Probation and Pretrial Services System

The U.S. Probation and Pretrial Services System, also called the Office of Probation and Pretrial Services, part of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts, is the office of the federal judiciary of the United States. It serves the ...

Uncensored from Texas Death Row

Uncensored from Texas Death Row is a series of articles originally started by Paul Colella that gives readers an impression of life on Death Row in Texas through the eyes of the inmates. Richard Cartwright took over when Colella was released from ...

Work release

In prison systems, work release programs allow a prisoner who is sufficiently trusted or can be sufficiently monitored to leave confinement to continue working at their current place of employment, returning to prison when their shift is complete ...

Physiognomy

Physiognomy is a practice of assessing a persons character or personality from their outer appearance - especially the face. The term can also refer to the general appearance of a person, object, or terrain without reference to its implied charac ...

Ajanbahu (term)

Ajanbahu is a Sanskrit word to describe a person, whose length of arms is so that his finger touch his knee. In Indian culture, persons with such physical characteristics are either Gods, saints, kings or great warriors. The idols of Hindu Gods l ...

Moleosophy

Moleosophy or moleomancy is a technique of divination and fortune telling based upon the observation and interpretation of bodily marks - primarily those of the melanocytic nevus condition. Although divination by moles, birthmarks and blemishes h ...

Physiognomonics

Physiognomonics is an Ancient Greek treatise on physiognomy casually attributed to Aristotle but since 1945 is now believed to be by a different author writing approximately 300 BC under Aristotles name.

Rumpology

Rumpology or bottom reading is a pseudoscience akin to physiognomy, performed by examining crevices, dimples, warts, moles and folds of a persons buttocks in much the same way a chirologist would read the palm of the hand.

Samudrika Shastra

Samudrika Shastra, part of the Vedic tradition, is the study of face reading, aura reading, and whole body analysis. Samudrika Shastra is a Sanskrit term that translates roughly as "knowledge of body features." Often used in Vedic astrology, as i ...

Sanpaku

Sanpaku gan or Sanpaku is a Japanese term meaning "three whites". It is generally referred to in English as "sanpaku eyes" and refers to eyes in which either the white space above or below the iris is obscured.

Positive criminology

Positive criminology is based on the perspective that integration and positive life influences that help individuals develop personally and socially will lead to a reduced risk of criminal behavior and better recovery of offenders. Integration wo ...

Enrico Ferri (criminologist)

Enrico Ferri was an Italian criminologist, socialist and student of Cesare Lombroso, the founder of the Italian school of criminology. While Lombroso researched the purported physiological factors that motivated criminals, Ferri investigated soci ...

Raffaele Garofalo

He was a student of Cesare Lombroso, often regarded as the father of criminology. He rejected the doctrine of free will which was the main tenet of the Classical School and supported the position that crime can be understood only if it is studied ...

Reintegrative shaming

In criminology, the reintegrative shaming theory emphasizes the importance of shame in criminal punishment. The theory holds that punishments should focus on the offenders behavior rather than characteristics of the offender. It was developed by ...

Right realism

Right realism, in criminology, also known as New Right Realism, Neo-Classicism, Neo-Positivism, or Neo-Conservatism, is the ideological polar opposite of left realism. It considers the phenomenon of crime from the perspective of political conserv ...

Racial hoax

A racial hoax is a hoax that occurs "when someone fabricates a crime and blames it on another person because of race". The term was popularised by Katheryn Russell-Brown in her book The Color of Crime: Racial Hoaxes, White Fear, Black Protectioni ...

Jesse Anderson

Jesse Michael Anderson was a convicted American murderer who was murdered in prison, along with serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer, by fellow inmate and convicted murderer Christopher Scarver.

Tawana Brawley rape allegations

Tawana Vicenia Brawley is an African-American woman from Wappingers Falls, New York, who falsely accused four white men of raping her in November 1987. On November 28, 1987, Brawley was found in a trash bag. She had racial slurs written on her bo ...

Duke lacrosse case

The Duke lacrosse case was a widely reported 2006 criminal case in Durham, North Carolina, United States which three members of the Duke University mens lacrosse team were falsely accused of rape. The three students – all white – were David Evans ...

Miscegenation: The Theory of the Blending of the Races, Applied to the American White Man and Negro

Miscegenation: The Theory of the Blending of the Races, Applied to the American White Man and Negro is a December 1863 hoax pamphlet created by New York World staff as part of an anti-Lincoln Copperhead campaign leading up to the 1864 presidentia ...

Seriously McDonalds

Seriously McDonalds is the name under which a viral photograph was spread in June 2011. The photograph shows a sign, which is in fact a hoax, claiming that McDonalds has implemented a new policy charging African-Americans more, as "an insurance m ...

Ashley Todd mugging hoax

In October 2008, Ashley Todd, a volunteer for the U.S. presidential campaign of Republican John McCain, falsely claimed to have been the victim of robbery and politically motivated physical assault by a supporter of McCains Democratic opponent Ba ...

Cambridge Institute of Criminology

The Institute of Criminology is the criminological institute within the Faculty of Law at the University of Cambridge. Its multidisciplinary teaching and research staff are recruited from the disciplines of law, psychiatry, psychology, and sociol ...

UCL Jill Dando Institute

The UCL Jill Dando Institute of Security and Crime Science is an institute of crime science located in London, United Kingdom and a part of University College London. It was founded in 2001, becoming the first university institute in the world de ...

Holocaust inversion

Holocaust inversion is a phrase which is used to describe the portrayal of Israel or Jews, especially Israeli Jews, as Nazis, crypto-Nazis, Nazi sympathizers, Holocaust perpetrators, or Holocaust "copycats." Whether this discourse is antisemitic ...

International Review of Victimology

The International Review of Victimology is a triannual peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the field of victimology. The editor-in-chief is Joanna Shapland and the editors are Edna Erez, Matthew Hall, Leslie Sebba and Jo-Anne Wemmers. It w ...

Irish slaves myth

The Irish slaves myth concerns the use of the term Irish "slaves" as a conflation of the penal transportation and indentured servitude of Irish people during the 17th and 18th centuries. Some white nationalists, and others who want to minimize th ...

Rianne Letschert

Rianne Monique Letschert is a Dutch law scholar. Since September 2016 she has been rector of Maastricht University. Previously Letschert was professor of victimology and international law at Tilburg University between March 2011 and September 2016.