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La Violencia

La Violencia was a ten-year civil war in Colombia from 1948 to 1958, between the Colombian Conservative Party and the Colombian Liberal Party, fought mainly in the countryside. La Violencia is considered to have begun with the 9 April 1948 assass ...

Less-than-whole citizens

Less-than-whole citizens, sometimes referred to as fragmented citizens refers to the social and legal status of citizens of a sovereign country that face discrimination on a level above second-class citizenship and below full and equal citizenshi ...

Lethal Politics

Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder since 1917 is an influential book by R.J. Rummel, published by Transaction Publishers in 1990. The book examines genocides and mass murders perpetrated by the Soviet regime from the days of Vladimi ...

Levashovo Memorial Cemetery

Levashovo Memorial Cemetery is a cemetery of victims of Soviet repressions during the Great Purge, at Levashovo, Saint Petersburg. Since the NKVD mass graves were opened to the public in 1989, more than 22 memorials have been erected, most notabl ...

List of ethnic cleansing campaigns

This article lists incidents that have been termed ethnic cleansing by some academic or legal experts. Not all experts agree on every case, particularly since there are a variety of definitions for the term ethnic cleansing. Where claims of ethni ...

List of international adoption scandals

The following is a partial list, by year, of notable incidents or reports of international adoption scandals, adoption corruption, child harvesting, baby-stealing, legal violations in international adoption, or adoption agency corruption (see chi ...

List of juveniles held at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp

Juveniles held at the Guantanamo Bay detention camp numbered fifteen, according to a 2011 study by the University of California Davis. The U.S. State Department had publicly acknowledged twelve. The US Department of Defense defined minors at Guan ...

Lord's Resistance Army insurgency

The Lords Resistance Army insurgency is an ongoing guerrilla campaign waged by the Lords Resistance Army insurgent group since 1987. Currently, there is low-level LRA activity in eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo and the Central African Re ...

Ibni Oumar Mahamat Saleh

Ibni Oumar Mahamat Saleh is a Chadian politician and opposition leader who headed the Party for Liberties and Development.

Manoj–Babli honour killing case

The Manoj–Babli honour killing case was the honour killing of Indian newlyweds Manoj Banwala and Babli in June 2007 and the subsequent court case which historically convicted defendants for an honour killing. The accused in the murder included re ...

Medical experimentation in Africa

African countries have been sites for clinical trials by large pharmaceutical companies, raising human rights concerns. Incidents of unethical experimentation, clinical trials lacking properly informed consent, and forced medical procedures have ...

Medical torture

Medical torture describes the involvement of, or sometimes instigation by, medical personnel in acts of torture, either to judge what victims can endure, to apply treatments which will enhance torture, or as torturers in their own right. Medical ...

Medomsley Detention Centre

Medomsley Detention Centre was a prison for young male offenders near Consett in Durham, England from 1961 until the late 1980s, where more than 1.800 living former inmates have reported sexual and physical abuse by staff. Police believe many of ...

Rachid Mesli

Rachid Mesli is a French Algerian human rights lawyer and activist, living in Geneva and acting as the Director of the Legal Department of Alkarama. In 1991, he became part of the defense lawyer team defending the case of the arrested leaders of ...

Fashad Mohamed

Fashad Mohamed is an Iraqi who died in custody on April 5, 2004. He is alleged to have been captured, and beaten by SEAL team 7. He was hooded, sleep deprived, and soaked with extremely hot and cold water. When he was finally allowed to sleep he ...

Rahaf Mohammed

Rahaf Mohammed is a Saudi woman who was detained by Thai authorities on 5 January 2019 while transiting through Bangkok airport, en route from Kuwait to Australia. She had intended to claim asylum in Australia and escape her family who she says a ...

Mongolian Gender Equality Center

The Mongolian Gender Equality Center is a non-government organization based in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia. The MGEC was established in 2002 to fight the growing crime of human trafficking. In Mongolia, human trafficking is primarily a gendered crime. ...

Saeed Mortazavi

Saeed Mortazavi is an Iranian conservative politician, former judge and former prosecutor. He was prosecutor of the Islamic Revolutionary Court, and Prosecutor General of Tehran, a position he held from 2003 to 2009. He has been called as "butche ...

Muluk murder case

Muluk murder case refers to an incident where four CPI activists were hacked to death by CPI activists in Muluk near Bolpur in Birbhum district in the Indian state of West Bengal, on 19 November 1987. On the morning of that date a CPIM procession ...

Myrotvorets

Mirotvorets, or Myrotvorets, is a Ukrainian Kiev-based website that purports to reveal personal information of people who are considered to be "enemies of Ukraine", or, as the website itself states, "whose actions have signs of crimes against the ...

National League for the Defense of Religious Liberty

National League for the Defense of Religious Liberty or National League for the Defense of Religious Freedom was a Mexican Catholic religious civil rights organization formed in March 1925 that played a crucial role in the Cristero War of 1926–19 ...

Ngalla Maya

Ngalla Maya is a Western Australian non-profit organisation benefiting Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders newly released from prison. The organisation mentors and trains newly released prisoners and helps them find employment. The ...

NKVD

The Peoples Commissariat for Internal Affairs, abbreviated NKVD, was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union. Established in 1917 as NKVD of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, the agency was originally tasked with conducting regu ...

Nonperson

A nonperson is a citizen or a member of a group who lacks, loses, or is forcibly denied social or legal status, especially basic human rights, or who effectively ceases to have a record of their existence within a society, from a point of view of ...

Office for the Documentation and the Investigation of the Crimes of Communism

The Office of the Documentation and the Investigation of the Crimes of Communism is the Czech police subdivision which investigated criminal acts from 1948 to 1989 which were unsolvable for political reasons during the Czechoslovak communist regime.

Paracuellos de Jarama

Paracuellos del Jarama is a small town and municipality in the Community of Madrid, Spain. It is located northeast from Madrid and very close to Madrid-Barajas Airport.

Sergio Paranhos Fleury

Sergio Fernando Paranhos Fleury was a Brazilian police deputy during the Brazilian military government. He was chief of DOPS, the Brazilian so called "Department for Political and Social Order", that had a major role during the years of the Brazi ...

Palma Sola massacre

The Palma Sola massacre, also known as the Liborista massacre, was a genocidal massacre carried out on 28 December 1962 against the Dominicans of the Liborista movement, who lived in Palma Sola, Dominican Republic, burning six hundred people to d ...

Parsley massacre

The parsley massacre was a mass killing that took place in October 1937 against Haitians living in the Dominican Republics northwestern frontier and in certain parts of the contiguous Cibao region. Dominican Army troops came from different areas ...

Parwan Detention Facility

The Parwan Detention Facility is Afghanistans main military prison. Situated next to the Bagram Air Base in the Parwan Province of Afghanistan, the prison was built by the United States during the Bush Administration. The Parwan Detention Facilit ...

Periodic Report of the United States of America to the United Nations Committee Against Torture

The Periodic Report of the United States of America to the United Nations Committee Against Torture is periodically submitted by the United States government, through the State Department, to the United Nations Committee Against Torture. In Octob ...

Periprava labor camp

The Periprava labor camp was a labor camp operated by the Romanian communist regime. It was located near the village of Periprava in the Danube Delta. Periprava was one of the places of detention of Romanian writer Florin Pavlovici, described by ...

Persecution of Hazara people in Quetta

The Hazara community in Quetta, in Pakistan, has been the target of persecution and violence. Terrorist organisations like Lashkar-e-Jhangvi have often accepted responsibility for conducting attacks on Hazaras in Pakistan. Hazaras have been livin ...

Reference Re Persons of Japanese Race

Reference Re Persons of Japanese Race is a famous decision of the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council, which upheld a Supreme Court of Canada ruling declaring a government order to deport Canadian citizens of Japanese descent to be valid.

Polenlager

The Polenlager was a system of labor and Nazi concentration camps in Silesia that held Poles during the World War II Nazi German occupation of Poland. The prisoners, originally destined for deportation across the border to the new semi-colonial G ...

Political repression

Political repression is the act of a state entity controlling a citizenry by force for political reasons, particularly for the purpose of restricting or preventing the citizenrys ability to take part in the political life of a society, thereby re ...

Politicide

Politicide is the deliberate physical destruction or elimination of a group whose members share the main characteristic of belonging to a political movement. It is a type of political repression, and one of the means which is used to politically ...

Rape during the liberation of France

U.S. soldiers were reported committing rape against French women during and after the liberation of France in the later stages of World War II. The sociologist J. Robert Lilly of Northern Kentucky University estimates that U.S. servicemen committ ...

Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland

The subject of rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland at the end of World War II in Europe was absent from the postwar historiography until the dissolution of the Soviet Union, although the documents of the era show that the problem was seri ...

Rape during the occupation of Germany

As Allied troops entered and occupied German territory during the later stages of World War II, mass rapes of women took place both in connection with combat operations and during the subsequent occupation. Most Western scholars agree that the ma ...

Abdul Razaq (Guantanamo detainee 356)

Abdul Razaq, a young Afghani man, was the first detainee to be released from the U.S. military detention facility at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba. Razaq was released after four months when officials determined that he was of no further intelligence value ...

Red Terror (Spain)

The Red Terror in Spain is the name given by some historians to various acts of violence committed from 1936 until the end of the Spanish Civil War "by sections of nearly all the leftist groups". News of the rightist military coup in July 1936 un ...

Robbins v. Lower Merion School District

Robbins v. Lower Merion School District is a federal class action lawsuit, brought in February 2010 on behalf of students of two high schools in Lower Merion Township, a suburb of Philadelphia. In October 2010, the school district agreed to pay 0 ...

Rodrigo Franco Command

The Rodrigo Franco Command was a paramilitary organization that acted as a death squad in Peru from 1985 to 1990. The group was closely aligned with the American Popular Revolutionary Alliance, which governed Peru under Alan Garcia during the yea ...

Romani genocide

The Romani genocide or the Romani Holocaust - also known as the Porajmos, the Pharrajimos, and the Samudaripen - was the effort by Nazi Germany and its World War II allies to commit genocide against Europes Romani people. Under Adolf Hitler, a su ...

Royal Proclamation of 2003

The Royal Proclamation of 2003, formally known as Proclamation Designating 28 July of Every Year as "A Day of Commemoration of the Great Upheaval", Commencing on 28 July 2005, is a document issued in the name of Queen Elizabeth II acknowledging t ...

Ernst Rudin

Ernst Rudin was a Swiss-born German psychiatrist, geneticist, eugenicist and Nazi. Rising to prominence under Emil Kraepelin and assuming his directorship at what is now called the Max Planck Institute of Psychiatry in Munich. While he has been c ...

1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre

The La Matanza, or the 1932 Salvadoran peasant massacre, occurred on January 22 of that year, in the western departments of El Salvador when a brief farmer-led rebellion was suppressed by the government, then led by Maximiliano Hernandez Martinez ...

Santebal

The Santebal, a Khmer term meaning "keeper of the peace", was the Special Branch of the Khmer Rouge regime in Cambodia. The Santebal was in charge of internal security and running prison camps like Tuol Sleng S-21 where thousands of people were i ...

Saturday Mothers

The Saturday Mothers is a group who gathers every Saturday at noon for half an hour at Galatasaray, Istanbul, initially to ask for clarification about their missing relatives Mainly composed of mothers of victims, and renowned as a model of civil ...