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Maxwell's thermodynamic surface

Maxwell’s thermodynamic surface is an 1874 sculpture made by Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell. This model provides a three-dimensional space of the various states of a fictitious substance with water-like properties. This plot has coordinat ...

MERODE

MERODE is an Object Oriented Enterprise Modeling method developed at KU Leuven. Its name is the abbreviation of M odel driven, E xistence dependency R elation, O bject oriented DE velopment. MERODE is a method for creating domain models as basis ...

Metamodeling

A metamodel or surrogate model is a model of a model, and metamodeling is the process of generating such metamodels. Thus metamodeling or meta-modeling is the analysis, construction and development of the frames, rules, constraints, models and th ...

Miniature effect

A miniature effect is a special effect created for motion pictures and television programs using scale models. Scale models are often combined with high speed photography or matte shots to make gravitational and other effects appear convincing to ...

Mining simulator

A mining simulator is a system used to replicate elements of mining operations, for training or efficiency analysis. Mining simulation application can range from pure statistical analysis, to scale models, all the way to replica cabins of mining ...

Mixture theory

Mixture theory is used to model multiphase systems using the principles of continuum mechanics generalised to several interpenetrable continua. The basic assumption is that, at any instant of time, all phases are present at every material point, ...

Model year (computer modeling)

The term model year in computer modeling is used for calculated equations describing one calendar year of data. If a climate model, for example, is calculating the climate from 2015 to 2020, the computer has to calculate 5 model years, however it ...

Model-dependent realism

Model-dependent realism is a view of scientific inquiry that focuses on the role of scientific models of phenomena. It claims reality should be interpreted based upon these models, and where several models overlap in describing a particular subje ...

Modeling language

A modeling language is any artificial language that can be used to express information or knowledge or systems in a structure that is defined by a consistent set of rules. The rules are used for interpretation of the meaning of components in the ...

Modeling perspective

A modeling perspective in information systems is a particular way to represent pre-selected aspects of a system. Any perspective has a different focus, conceptualization, dedication and visualization of what the model is representing. The traditi ...

MODELISAR

MODELISAR was an ITEA 2 European project aiming to improve the design of systems and of embedded software in vehicles. The MODELISAR goals were to: Develop the Functional Mock-up Interface standardized interface Support the AUTOSAR AUTomotive Ope ...

Molecular dynamics

Molecular dynamics is a computer simulation method for analyzing the physical movements of atoms and molecules. The atoms and molecules are allowed to interact for a fixed period of time, giving a view of the dynamic "evolution" of the system. In ...

Multislice

The multislice algorithm is a method for the simulation of the elastic interaction of an electron beam with matter, including all multiple scattering effects. The method is reviewed in the book by Cowley. The algorithm is used in the simulation o ...

Neurogrid

Neurogrid is a piece of computer hardware that is designed specifically for simulation of biological brains. It uses analog computation to emulate ion channel activity, and digital communication to softwire structured connectivity patterns. Neuro ...

Participatory modeling

Participatory modeling is a purposeful learning process for action that engages the implicit and explicit knowledge of stakeholders to create formalized and shared representation of reality. In this process, the participants co-formulate the prob ...

Particle-in-cell

The particle-in-cell method refers to a technique used to solve a certain class of partial differential equations. In this method, individual particles in a Lagrangian frame are tracked in continuous phase space, whereas moments of the distributi ...

Pattern-oriented modeling

Pattern-oriented modeling is an approach to bottom-up complex systems analysis that was developed to model complex ecological and agent-based systems. A goal of POM is to make ecological modeling more rigorous and comprehensive. A traditional eco ...

Phenomenological model

A phenomenological model is a scientific model that describes the empirical relationship of phenomena to each other, in a way which is consistent with fundamental theory, but is not directly derived from theory. In other words, a phenomenological ...

Physical model

Physical model is a smaller or larger physical copy of an object. The object being modelled may be small or large. The geometry of the model and the object it represents are often similar in the sense that one is a rescaling of the other; in such ...

Pontifex (project)

PONTIFEX was a mid-1980s project that introduced a novel approach to complex aircraft fleet scheduling, partially funded by the European Commissions Strategic Programme for R&D in Information Technology. Since the mathematical problems stemmi ...

Pyrolite

Pyrolite is a term used to characterize a model composition of the Earths upper mantle. The definition varies, but it is generally considered as being 1 part tholeiitic basalt and 3 parts dunite. If fused experimentally, this mix yields high pres ...

Rain-out model

The rain-out model is a model of planetary science that describes the first stage of planetary differentiation and core formation. According to this model, a planetary body is assumed to be composed primarily of silicate minerals and NiFe. If tem ...

Reactive transport modeling in porous media

Reactive transport modeling in porous media refers to the creation of computer models integrating chemical reaction with transport of fluids through the Earths crust. Such models predict the distribution in space and time of the chemical reaction ...

Reservoir modeling

In the oil and gas industry, reservoir modeling involves the construction of a computer model of a petroleum reservoir, for the purposes of improving estimation of reserves and making decisions regarding the development of the field, predicting f ...

Reverse computation

Reverse computation is a software application of the concept of reversible computing. Because it offers a possible solution to the heat problem faced by chip manufacturers, reversible computing has been extensively studied in the area of computer ...

Runoff model (reservoir)

A runoff model is a mathematical model describing the rainfall – runoff relations of a rainfall catchment area, drainage basin or watershed. More precisely, it produces a surface runoff hydrograph in response to a rainfall event, represented by a ...

SahysMod

SahysMod is a computer program for the prediction of the salinity of soil moisture, groundwater and drainage water, the depth of the watertable, and the drain discharge in irrigated agricultural lands, using different hydrogeologic and aquifer co ...

SaltMod

SaltMod is computer program for the prediction of the salinity of soil moisture, groundwater and drainage water, the depth of the watertable, and the drain discharge in irrigated agricultural lands, using different hydrologic conditions, varying ...

Self-propelled particles

Self-propelled particles, also referred to as self-driven particles, are terms used by physicists to describe autonomous agents, which convert energy from the environment into directed or persistent motion. Natural systems which have inspired the ...

Simulated growth of plants

The simulated growth of plants is a significant task in of systems biology and mathematical biology, which seeks to reproduce plant morphology with computer software. Electronic trees usually use L-systems to simulate growth. L-systems are very i ...

Skin friction line

In scientific visualization skin friction lines are used to visualize flows on 3D-surfaces. They are obtained by calculating the streamlines of a derived vector field on the surface, the wall shear stress. Skin friction arises from the friction o ...

Soft computing

Soft computing, unlike traditional computing, deals with approximate models and gives solution to complex problems in life. It was conceived by Lotfi Zadeh, pioneer of the mathematical concept known as fuzzy sets, which led to many new areas such ...

Species distribution modelling

Species distribution modelling, also known as environmental niche modelling, habitat modelling, predictive habitat distribution modelling, and range mapping uses computer algorithms to predict the distribution of a species across geographic space ...

Specification language

A specification language is a formal language in computer science used during systems analysis, requirements analysis, and systems design to describe a system at a much higher level than a programming language, which is used to produce the execut ...

Spherical cow

A spherical cow is a humorous metaphor for highly simplified scientific models of complex real life phenomena. The implication is that theoretical physicists will often reduce a problem to the simplest form they can imagine in order to make calcu ...

Starlight Information Visualization System

Starlight is a software product originally developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and now by Future Point Systems. It is an advanced visual analysis environment. In addition to using information visualization to show the importance of ...

Stencil code

Stencil codes are a class of iterative kernels which update array elements according to some fixed pattern, called a stencil. They are most commonly found in the codes of computer simulations, e.g. for computational fluid dynamics in the context ...

System archetype

System archetypes are patterns of behavior of a system. Systems expressed by circles of causality have therefore similar structure. Identifying a system archetype and finding the leverage enables efficient changes in a system. The basic system ar ...

Systems modeling

Systems modeling or system modeling is the interdisciplinary study of the use of models to conceptualize and construct systems in business and IT development. A common type of systems modeling is function modeling, with specific techniques such a ...

Systems simulation

Systems simulation is a set of techniques that uses computers to imitate the operations of various real-world tasks or processes through simulation. Computers are used to generate numeric models for the purpose of describing or displaying complex ...

Tensor glyph

In scientific visualization a tensor glyph is an object that can visualize all or most of the nine degrees of freedom, such as acceleration, twist, or shear – of a 3 × 3 {\displaystyle 3\times 3} matrix. It is used for tensor field visualization, ...

Texture advection

In scientific visualization, texture advection is a family of methods to densely visualize vector fields or flows. Scientists can use the created images and animations to better understand these flows and reason about them. In comparison to techn ...

Urgent computing

Urgent computing is prioritized and immediate access on supercomputers and grids for emergency computations such as severe weather prediction during matters of immediate concern. Applications that provide decision makers with information during c ...

Variance-based sensitivity analysis

Variance-based sensitivity analysis is a form of global sensitivity analysis. Working within a probabilistic framework, it decomposes the variance of the output of the model or system into fractions which can be attributed to inputs or sets of in ...

Verification and validation of computer simulation models

Verification and validation of computer simulation models is conducted during the development of a simulation model with the ultimate goal of producing an accurate and credible model. "Simulation models are increasingly being used to solve proble ...

Vis5D

Vis5D is a 3D visualization system used primarily for animated 3D visualization of weather simulations. It was the first system to produce fully interactive animated 3D displays of time-dynamic volumetric data sets and the first open source 3D vi ...

VisAD

VisAD is a Java component library for interactive and collaborative visualization and analysis of numerical data. It combines a flexible data model and distributed objects to support sharing of data, visualizations and user interfaces between dif ...

Visual analytics

Visual analytics is an outgrowth of the fields of information visualization and scientific visualization that focuses on analytical reasoning facilitated by interactive visual interfaces.

Visualizing Energy Resources Dynamically on the Earth

VERDE is a visualization and analysis capability of the United States Department of Energy. The system, developed and maintained by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, provides wide-area situational understanding of the U.S. electric grid. Enabling gr ...

Wilson cycle

The Wilson cycle is a model where a continental rift breaks up a continent, leading to the formation of an ocean basin between two lithospheric plates. The separation of the two plates is followed later by convergence that leads to the closure of ...