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Manifest and latent functions and dysfunctions

Manifest and latent functions are social scientific concepts created by anthropologist, Bronislaw Malinowski in 1922 while studying the Trobiand Islanders in the Western Pacific. It was later modified for sociology by Robert K. Merton. Merton app ...

Mutual exclusivity

In logic and probability theory, two events are mutually exclusive or disjoint if they cannot both occur at the same time. A clear example is the set of outcomes of a single coin toss, which can result in either heads or tails, but not both. In t ...

Open–closed political spectrum

The open–closed political spectrum, an alternative to the standard left–right political spectrum, used to describe the cleavage in political systems in Europe and North America in the 21st century. In this system, parties and voters are arranged ...

Opposite (semantics)

In lexical semantics, opposites are words lying in an inherently incompatible binary relationship. For example, something that is long entails that it is not short. It is referred to as a binary relationship because there are two members in a set ...

Ousterhout's dichotomy

Ousterhouts dichotomy is computer scientist John Ousterhouts categorization that high-level programming languages tend to fall into two groups, each with distinct properties and uses: system programming languages and scripting languages – compare ...

Senpai and kōhai

In Japan, the relationship between senpai and kōhai is an informal hierarchical interpersonal relationship found in organizations, associations, clubs, businesses, and schools. The concept has its roots in Confucian teaching, and has developed a ...

Separation of mechanism and policy

The separation of mechanism and policy is a design principle in computer science. It states that mechanisms should not dictate the policies according to which decisions are made about which operations to authorize, and which resources to allocate ...

Separation of protection and security

In computer sciences the separation of protection and security is a design choice. Wulf et al. identified protection as a mechanism and security as a policy, therefore making the protection-security distinction a particular case of the separation ...

Simulacra and Simulation

Simulacra and Simulation is a 1981 philosophical treatise by Jean Baudrillard, in which the author seeks to examine the relationships between reality, symbols, and society, in particular the significations and symbolism of culture and media invol ...

Wave–particle duality

Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantum entity may be described as either a particle or a wave. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts "particle" or "wave" to fully describe the behav ...

What Is Life?

What Is Life? The Physical Aspect of the Living Cell is a 1944 science book written for the lay reader by physicist Erwin Schrodinger. The book was based on a course of public lectures delivered by Schrodinger in February 1943, under the auspices ...

Yin and yang

In Ancient Chinese philosophy, yin and yang is a concept of dualism, describing how seemingly opposite or contrary forces may actually be complementary, interconnected, and interdependent in the natural world, and how they may give rise to each o ...

Difference (philosophy)

Difference is a key concept of philosophy, denoting the process or set of properties by which one entity is distinguished from another within a relational field or a given conceptual system. In the Western philosophical system, difference is trad ...

Non-difference (Abheda)

Non-difference is the nearest English translation of the Sanskrit word abheda, meaning non-existence of difference. In Vedanta philosophy this word plays a vital role in explaining the indicatory mark in respect of the unity of the individual sel ...

Structure-mapping theory

Structure-mapping theory is a theory of analogical reasoning, developed by Dedre Gentner, and for which she was awarded the 2016 David E. Rumelhart Prize for Contributions to the Theoretical Foundations of Human Cognition.

Aeroacoustic analogy

Acoustic analogies are applied mostly in numerical aeroacoustics to reduce aeroacoustic sound sources to simple emitter types. They are therefore often also referred to as aeroacoustic analogies. In general, aeroacoustic analogies are derived fro ...

Analogical modeling

Analogical modeling is a formal theory of exemplar based analogical reasoning, proposed by Royal Skousen, professor of Linguistics and English language at Brigham Young University in Provo, Utah. It is applicable to language modeling and other ca ...

Analogical models

Analogical models are a method of representing a phenomenon of the world, often called the "target system" by another, more understandable or analysable system. They are also called dynamical analogies. Two open systems have analog representation ...

Case-based evidence

Case-based evidence is a scientific method based on the supposition that certain human behavioural patterns, also including basic attitudes and stances, and with particular reference to the acceptance of systems, technical devices and procedures, ...

Chilton and Colburn J-factor analogy

Chilton–Colburn J-factor analogy is a successful and widely used analogy between heat, momentum, and mass transfer. The basic mechanisms and mathematics of heat, mass, and momentum transport are essentially the same. Among many analogies develope ...

Figurative analogy

A figurative analogy is a comparison about two things that are not alike but share only some common property. On the other hand, a literal analogy is about two things that are nearly exactly alike. The two things compared in a figurative analogy ...

Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies

Fluid Concepts and Creative Analogies: Computer Models of the Fundamental Mechanisms of Thought is a 1995 book by Douglas Hofstadter and other members of the Fluid Analogies Research Group exploring the mechanisms of intelligence through computer ...

Membrane analogy

The elastic membrane analogy, also known as the soap-film analogy, was first published by pioneering aerodynamicist Ludwig Prandtl in 1903. It describes the stress distribution on a long bar in torsion. The cross section of the bar is constant al ...

Redshift-space distortions

Redshift-space distortions are an effect in observational cosmology where the spatial distribution of galaxies appears squashed and distorted when their positions are plotted as a function of their redshift rather than as a function of their dist ...

Reynolds analogy

The Reynolds Analogy is popularly known to relate turbulent momentum and heat transfer. That is because in a turbulent flow the transport of momentum and the transport of heat largely depends on the same turbulent eddies: the velocity and the tem ...

Shouting fire in a crowded theater

"Shouting fire in a crowded theater" is a popular metaphor for speech or actions made for the principal purpose of creating panic. The phrase is a paraphrasing of Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr.s opinion in the United States Supreme Court case ...

Whataboutism

Whataboutism, also known as whataboutery, is a variant of the tu quoque logical fallacy that attempts to discredit an opponents position by charging them with hypocrisy without directly refuting or disproving their argument. It is particularly as ...

Attribute-value system

An attribute-value system is a basic knowledge representation framework comprising a table with columns designating "attributes" and "rows" designating "objects". Each table cell therefore designates the value of a particular attribute of a parti ...

Cloth modeling

Cloth is a woven or felted fabric made from wool, cotton, or a similar fiber. Cloth modeling is the term used for simulating cloth within a computer program, usually in the context of 3D computer graphics. The main approaches used for this may be ...

Correlation function (statistical mechanics)

In statistical mechanics, the correlation function is a measure of the order in a system, as characterized by a mathematical correlation function. Correlation functions describe how microscopic variables, such as spin and density, at different po ...

EconMult

EconMult is a general fleet model to be used in fisheries modelling. EconMult has been developed since 1991 as a part of the Multispecies management programme by the Norwegian Research Council at the Norwegian College of Fishery Science.

EconSimp

EconSimp is a bioeconomic management model of the Barents Sea fisheries. It consists of two modules modelling respectively the Barents Sea ecosystem and the Norwegian fleet structure and activity. The ecosystem module is the multispecies model Ag ...

Fa (concept)

Fa is a concept in Chinese philosophy that covers ethics, logic, and law. It can be translated as "law" in some contexts, but more often as "model" or "standard." First gaining importance in the Mohist school of thought, the concept was principal ...

Functional response

A functional response in ecology is the intake rate of a consumer as a function of food density. It is associated with the numerical response, which is the reproduction rate of a consumer as a function of food density. Following C. S. Holling, fu ...

Hard spheres

Hard spheres are widely used as model particles in the statistical mechanical theory of fluids and solids. They are defined simply as impenetrable spheres that cannot overlap in space. They mimic the extremely strong repulsion that atoms and sphe ...

Logic model

Logic models are hypothesized descriptions of the chain of causes and effects leading to an outcome of interest. While they can be in a narrative form, logic model usually take form in a graphical depiction of the "if-then" relationships between ...

Logical cube

In the system of Aristotelian logic, the logical cube is a diagram representing the different ways in which each of the eight propositions of the system is logically related to each of the others. The system is also useful in the analysis of syll ...

Logical hexagon

In philosophical logic, the logical hexagon is a conceptual model of the relationships between the truth values of six statements. It is an extension of Aristotles square of opposition. It was discovered independently by both Augustin Sesmat and ...

Lumped-element model

The lumped-element model simplifies the description of the behaviour of spatially distributed physical systems into a topology consisting of discrete entities that approximate the behaviour of the distributed system under certain assumptions. It ...

MIXR

The Mixed Reality Simulation Platform is an open-source software project designed to support the development of robust, scalable, virtual and constructive, and stand-alone and distributed simulation applications. Its most common use case is to su ...

Model worker

Model worker is a Communist Chinese political term referring to an exemplary worker who exhibits some or all of the traits appropriate to the ideal of the socialist worker. The idea is similar to the Soviet Stakhanovite icon. Model workers are se ...

Monte Carlo simulation modelling of industrial systems

The modeling technique used, the following event Monte Carlo, with a full set of building blocks, animation, graphical interface, unlimited hierarchical decomposition, full connectivity and interaction with other programs, on the basis of library ...

O'Rahilly's historical model

ORahillys historical model is a theory of the history of prehistoric Ireland in the Iron Age put forward by the linguist T. F. ORahilly in 1946. It was based on his study of the influences on the Irish language and a critical analysis of Irish my ...

Population model

Models allow a better understanding of how complex interactions and processes work. Modeling of dynamic interactions in nature can provide a manageable way of understanding how numbers change over time or in relation to each other. Many patterns ...

Porphyrian tree

The Tree of Porphyry is a classic device for illustrating what is also called a "scale of being". It was suggested - if not first, then most famously in the European philosophical tradition - by the 3rd century CE Greek neoplatonist philosopher a ...

Records continuum model

The records continuum model is an abstract conceptual model that helps to understand and explore recordkeeping activities. It was created in the 1990s by Monash University academic Frank Upward with input from colleagues Sue McKemmish and Livia I ...

Spaceship Earth

Spaceship Earth is a world view encouraging everyone on Earth to act as a harmonious crew working toward the greater good.

Square of opposition

In philosophical logic, the square of opposition is a diagram representing the relations between the four basic categorical propositions. The origin of the square can be traced back to Aristotle making the distinction between two oppositions: con ...

Standard solar model

The standard solar model is a mathematical treatment of the Sun as a spherical ball of gas. This model, technically the spherically symmetric quasi-static model of a star, has stellar structure described by several differential equations derived ...

Truth table

A truth table is a mathematical table used in logic - specifically in connection with Boolean algebra, boolean functions, and propositional calculus - which sets out the functional values of logical expressions on each of their functional argumen ...