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Nietzschean affirmation

Nietzschean affirmation, also known as affirmation of life, is a concept in the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. The best example of this concept can be found in Nietzsches The Will to Power: If we affirm one single moment, we thus affirm not o ...

Noema

The word noema derives from the Greek word νόημα meaning "thought", or "what is thought about". The philosopher Edmund Husserl used noema as a technical term in phenomenology to stand for the object or content of a thought, judgement, or percepti ...

Nomological

In philosophy, nomological denotes something resembling general laws, especially laws that lack logical necessity or theoretical underpinnings; they just are. Nomological things are "lawlike". See also: Nomothetic Nomological network Nomological ...

One Divides Into Two

The One Divides into Two controversy was an ideological debate about the nature of contradiction that took place in China in 1964. The concept originated in Lenins Philosophical Notebooks. The philosopher Yang Xianzhen, originated the idea of "Tw ...

Ontological turn

The ontological turn broadly relates to a development in a number of philosophical and academic disciplines that led to an increased focus on being. The ontological turn in anthropology is not concerned with anthropological notions of culture, ep ...

Palingenesis

Palingenesis is a concept of rebirth or re-creation, used in various contexts in philosophy, theology, politics, and biology. Its meaning stems from Greek palin, meaning again, and genesis, meaning birth. In biology, it is another word for recapi ...

Passions (philosophy)

In philosophy and religion the passions are the instinctive, emotional, primitive drives in a human being which a human being must restrain, channel, develop and sublimate in order to be possessed of wisdom. Passions in religion and philosophy ha ...

Perpetual peace

Perpetual peace refers to a state of affairs where peace is permanently established over a certain area. The idea of perpetual peace was first suggested in the 18th century, when Charles-Irenee Castel de Saint-Pierre published his essay "Project ...

Political consciousness

Consciousness typically refers to the idea of a being who is self-aware. It is a distinction often reserved for human beings. This remains the original and most common usage of the term. For Marx, consciousness describes a persons political sense ...

Post-truth

Post-truth is a philosophical and political concept for "the disappearance of shared objective standards for truth" and the "circuitous slippage between facts or alt-facts, knowledge, opinion, belief, and truth". Post-truth discourse is often con ...

Power (social and political)

In social science and politics, power is the capacity of an individual to influence the conduct of others. The term "authority" is often used for power that is perceived as legitimate by the social structure. Power can be seen as evil or unjust. ...

Praxis (process)

Praxis is the process by which a theory, lesson, or skill is enacted, embodied, or realized. "Praxis" may also refer to the act of engaging, applying, exercising, realizing, or practicing ideas. This has been a recurrent topic in the field of phi ...

Privation

In child psychology, privation occurs when a child has no opportunity to form a relationship with a parent figure, or when such relationship is distorted, due to their treatment. It is different to deprivation, which occurs when an established re ...

Qi

In traditional Chinese culture, qi or chi is believed to be a vital force forming part of any living entity. Qi translates as "air" and figuratively as "material energy", "life force", or "energy flow". Qi is the central underlying principle in C ...

Radical Computer Music

Radical Computer Music is a concept developed by the Danish experimental composer Goodiepal referring to, fundamentally, music notated not by computer networks but for computer networks, as a gesture towards the machine and the artificial intelli ...

Real freedom

Real freedom is a term coined by the political philosopher and economist Philippe Van Parijs. It expands upon notions of negative freedom by incorporating not simply institutional or other constraints on a persons choices, but also the requiremen ...

Reflective disclosure

Reflective disclosure is a model of social criticism proposed and developed by philosopher Nikolas Kompridis. It is partly based on Martin Heideggers insights into the phenomenon of world disclosure, which Kompridis applies to the field of politi ...

Relation (history of concept)

The concept of relation as a term used in general philosophy has a long and complicated history. One of the interests for the Greek philosophers lay in the number of ways in which a particular thing might be described, and the establishment of a ...

Repressive desublimation

Repressive desublimation is a term first coined by philosopher and sociologist Herbert Marcuse in his 1964 work One-Dimensional Man, that refers to the way in which, in advanced industrial society, "the progress of technological rationality is li ...

Right to exist

The right to exist is said to be an attribute of nations. According to an essay by the nineteenth-century French philosopher Ernest Renan, a state has the right to exist when individuals are willing to sacrifice their own interests for the commun ...

The saying and the said

Emmanuel Levinas, in an attempt to overcome a certain naivety within his exploration of ethics as given in what he describes as the face-to-face encounter, attempts to introduce language into what had only been a "picture" of such an encounter. H ...

Schizoanalysis

Schizoanalysis is a concept created by philosopher Gilles Deleuze and psychoanalyst Felix Guattari and first expounded in their book Anti-Oedipus. Its formulation was continued in their follow-up work, A Thousand Plateaus. Schizoanalysis acquires ...

Science of man

The science of man is a topic in David Humes 18th century experimental philosophy A Treatise of Human Nature. The science of man expanded the understanding of facets of human nature, including senses, impressions, ideas, imagination, passions, mo ...

Sense data

In the philosophy of perception, the theory of sense data was a popular view held in the early 20th century by philosophers such as Bertrand Russell, C. D. Broad, H. H. Price, A. J. Ayer, and G. E. Moore. Sense data are taken to be mind-dependent ...

Sittlichkeit

Sittlichkeit is the concept of "ethical life" or "ethical order" furthered by philosopher Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel in his 1807 work Phenomenology of Spirit and his 1820/21 work Elements of the Philosophy of Right.

Soku hi

Soku-hi means "is and is not". The term is primarily used by the representatives of the Kyoto School of Eastern philosophy. The logic of soku-hi or "is and is not" represents a balanced logic of symbolization reflecting sensitivity to the mutual ...

State of nature

The state of nature, in moral and political philosophy, religion, social contract theories and international law, is the hypothetical life of people before societies came into existence. Philosophers of the state of nature theory deduce that ther ...

Superrationality

In economics and game theory, a participant is considered to have superrationality if they have perfect rationality but assume that all other players are superrational too and that a superrational individual will always come up with the same stra ...

Tetrapharmakos

The Tetrapharmakos "four-part remedy" is a summary of the first four of the Κύριαι Δόξαι in Epicureanism, a recipe for leading the happiest possible life. They are recommendations to avoid anxiety or existential dread. The "tetrapharmakos" was or ...

Thumos

Thumos is a Greek word expressing the concept of "spiritedness". The word indicates a physical association with breath or blood and is also used to express the human desire for recognition. It is not a somatic feeling, as nausea and giddiness are.

Transvaluation of values

The revaluation of all values or transvaluation is a concept from the philosophy of Friedrich Nietzsche. Elaborating the concept in The Antichrist, Nietzsche asserts that Christianity, not merely as a religion but also as the predominant moral sy ...

Trichotomy (philosophy)

A trichotomy is a three-way classificatory division. Some philosophers pursued trichotomies. Important trichotomies discussed by Aquinas include the causal principles, the potencies for the intellect, and the acts of the intellect, with all of th ...

Unity of the proposition

In philosophy, the unity of the proposition is the problem of explaining how a sentence in the indicative mood expresses more than just what a list of proper names expresses.

Universality (philosophy)

In analytic philosophy, universality is the idea that universal facts exist and can be progressively discovered, as opposed to relativism. In certain theologies, universalism is the quality ascribed to an entity whose existence is consistent thro ...

Urdoxa

Urdoxa is a portmanteau of the German prefix ur- and the Ancient Greek δόξα, thus meaning "primary" or "first" doctrine. For Plato and Aristotle, the notion of "doxa" meant "opinion". The term grew in popular usage in the work of Edmund Husserl w ...

Via media

Via media is a Latin phrase meaning "the middle road" and is a philosophical maxim for life which advocates moderation in all thoughts and actions. Originating from the Delphic Maxim nothing to excess and subsequent Ancient Greek philosophy where ...

Virtuality (philosophy)

Deleuze used the term virtual to refer to an aspect of reality that is ideal, but nonetheless real. An example of this is the meaning, or sense, of a proposition that is not a material aspect of that proposition whether written or spoken but is n ...

Volkerabfalle

Volkerabfalle is a term used by Frederick Engels to describe small nations which he considered residual fragments of former peoples who had succumbed to more powerful neighbours in the historic process of social development and which Engels consi ...

Wen and wu

Wen 文 and wǔ 武 - a conceptual pair in Chinese philosophy and political culture describing opposition and complementarity of civil ① and military ② realms of government. Differentiation between wen and wu was engaged in discussions on criminal p ...

Xin (concept)

In Chinese philosophy, xin can refer to ones "disposition" or "feelings", or to ones confidence or trust in something or someone. Literally, xin refers to the physical heart, though it is sometimes translated as "mind" as the ancient Chinese beli ...

Zeitgeist

The zeitgeist is a concept from eighteenth- to nineteenth-century German philosophy, meaning "spirit of the age" or "spirit of the times". It refers to an invisible agent or force dominating the characteristics of a given epoch in world history. ...

4D vector

In computer science, a 4D vector is a 4-component vector data type. Uses include homogeneous coordinates for 3-dimensional space in computer graphics, and red green blue alpha values for bitmap images with a color and alpha channel. They may also ...

Active and passive transformation

In analytic geometry, spatial transformations in the 3-dimensional Euclidean space R 3 {\displaystyle \mathbb {R} ^{3}} are distinguished into active or alibi transformations, and passive or alias transformations. An active transformation is a tr ...

Ansatz

In physics and mathematics, an ansatz is an educated guess or an additional assumption made to help solve a problem, and which is later verified to be part of the solution by its results.

Araki–Sucher correction

In atomic, molecular and optical physics, the Araki–Sucher correction is a leading-order correction to the energy levels of atoms and molecules due to effects of quantum electrodynamics. It is named after Huzihiro Araki and Joseph Sucher, who fir ...

Arrow of time

The arrow of time, also called times arrow, is the concept positing the "one-way direction" or "asymmetry" of time. It was developed in 1927 by the British astrophysicist Arthur Eddington, and is an unsolved general physics question. This directi ...

Asymptotic safety in quantum gravity

Asymptotic safety is a concept in quantum field theory which aims at finding a consistent and predictive quantum theory of the gravitational field. Its key ingredient is a nontrivial fixed point of the theorys renormalization group flow which con ...

Bell's theorem

Bells theorem, also referred to as the Bell Inequality, proposes a testable construct for resolving the disparity in causality and locality that exists between quantum mechanics and classical physics models, specifically the concept of quantum en ...

Boltzmann's entropy formula

In statistical mechanics, Boltzmanns equation is a probability equation relating the entropy S of an ideal gas to the quantity W, the number of real microstates corresponding to the gas macrostate: where k B is the Boltzmann constant also written ...

Born reciprocity

Not to be confused with the Born rule, which relates to the probability of the outcome of a measurement on a quantum system. In physics, Born reciprocity, also called reciprocal relativity or Born–Green reciprocity, is a principle set up by theor ...