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Brand extension

Brand extension or brand stretching is a marketing strategy in which a firm marketing a product with a well-developed image uses the same brand name in a different product category. The new product is called a spin-off. Organizations use this str ...

Brand loyalty

Brand loyalty is defined as positive feelings towards a brand and dedication to purchase the same product or service repeatedly now and in the future from the same brand, regardless of a competitors actions or changes in the environment. It can a ...

Brand relationship

A consumer-brand relationship, also known as a Brand Relationship is the relationship that consumers, think, feel, and have with a product or company brand. For more than half a century, scholarship has been generated to help managers and stakeho ...

Brand tribalism

A brand tribe is a group of people who are linked by a shared belief around a brand. Its members are not simple consumers, they are also believers and promoters. A brand tribe is capable of collective action and therefore has implications for bus ...

Brand valuation

Brand valuation is the job of estimating the total financial value of the brand. Like the valuation of any product, or self review, a conflict of interest exists if those that value the brand also were involved in its creation. The ISO 10668 stan ...

Challenger brand

A challenger brand is a brand in an industry where it is neither the market leader nor a niche brand. Challenger brands are categorised by a mindset which sees they have business ambitions beyond conventional resources and an intent to bring chan ...

Customer experience

In commerce, customer experience is the product of an interaction between an organization and a customer over the duration of their relationship. This interaction is made up of three parts: the customer journey, the brand touchpoints the customer ...

Emotional branding

Emotional branding is a term used within marketing communication that refers to the practice of building brands that appeal directly to a consumers emotional state, needs and aspirations. Emotional branding is successful when it triggers an emoti ...

Ethical positioning index

The EPI is an index which measures how ethically a brand is positioned. Ethics have been a highly debated and controversial element in branding exercises. Marketers opinions on this aspect of sales have varied from time to time. Using ethical pra ...

Fighter brand

In marketing, a fighter brand is a lower-priced offering launched by a company to take on, and ideally take out, specific competitors that are attempting to under-price them. Unlike traditional brands that are designed with target consumers in mi ...

Generic brand

Generic brands of consumer products are distinguished by the absence of a brand name, instead identified solely by product characteristics and identified by plain, usually black-and-white packaging. Generally they imitate more expensive branded p ...

Hallmark

A hallmark is an official mark or series of marks struck on items made of metal, mostly to certify the content of noble metals - such as platinum, gold, silver and in some nations, palladium. In a more general sense, the term hallmark can also be ...

Individual branding

Individual branding, also called individual product branding, flanker brands or multibranding, is "a branding strategy in which products are given brand names that are newly created and generally not connected to names of existing brands offered ...

Microbrand

A microbrand is a small-scale brand recognized only in a certain geographic location, or by consumers in a specific micromarket or niche market. The majority of microbrands are owned by a microbusiness, though this trend is changing due to the ex ...

National brand

A national brand is the brand of a product that is distributed nationally under a brand name - owned by a producer or distributor - as opposed to local brands, and to private-label brands National brands compete with local and private brands. Nat ...

Product lining

In marketing jargon, product lining is offering several related products for sale individually. Unlike product bundling, where several products are combined into one group, which is then offered for sale as a units, product lining involves offeri ...

Product proliferation

Product proliferation occurs when organizations market many variations of the same products. This can be done through different colour combinations, product sizes and different product uses. This produces diversity for the firm as it is able to c ...

Promotional apparel

Promotional apparel is clothing imprinted with a companys name, logo or message. They include shirts, gloves, hats, jackets and any piece of clothing that can be incorporated in marketing and communication campaigns. The promotional clothing is u ...

Silver hallmarks

A silver object that is to be sold commercially is, in most countries, stamped with one or more silver hallmarks indicating the purity of the silver, the mark of the manufacturer or silversmith, and other markings to indicate date of manufacture ...

Umbrella brand

Umbrella branding is a marketing practice involving the use of a single brand name for the sale of two or more related products. Umbrella branding is mainly used by companies with a positive brand equity. All products use the same means of identi ...

Verbal Identity

Verbal identity or verbal brand identity is the linguistic component of an organisations brand. It incorporates brand language, the terms in which an organisation describes itself and its products, but also covers the names of corporations and th ...

Visual brand language

Visual brand language is the unique "alphabet" of design elements – such as shape, color, materials, finish, typography and composition – which directly and subliminally communicate a companys values and personality through compelling imagery and ...

CONWIP

CONWIP are pull-oriented production control systems. Such systems can be classified as pull and push systems. In a push system, the production order is scheduled and the material is pushed into the production line. In a pull system, the start of ...

Engineering bill of materials

An engineering bill of materials is a type of bill of materials reflecting the product as designed by engineering, referred to as the "as-designed" bill of materials. The EBOM is not related to modular BOM or configurable CBOM concepts, as modula ...

Formalized Administrative Notation (FAN)

Formalized Administrative Notation is a method that enables administrators of various organizations to describe the flow and sequence of operations, identify their responsibilities, define and integrate their transactions etc. Its objective is to ...

Manufacturing bill of materials

A manufacturing bill of materials, also referred to as the manufacturing BOM, contains all the parts and assemblies required to build a complete and shippable product. MBOM is a type of bill of materials BOM. Unlike Engineering bill of materials ...

SAPgui

SAPGUI is the GUI client in SAP ERPs 3-tier architecture of database, application server and client. It is software that runs on a Microsoft Windows, Apple Macintosh or Unix desktop, and allows a user to access SAP functionality in SAP applicatio ...

Transportation management system

A transportation management system is a subset of supply chain management concerning transportation operations and may be part of an enterprise resource planning system. A TMS usually "sits" between an ERP or legacy order processing and warehouse ...

Transportation Systems Management

Transportation Systems Management is a set of techniques used to increase the capacity of a piece of transportation infrastructure without increasing its physical size. Most often, these techniques are used in the context of roadways. In this con ...

Andon (manufacturing)

Andon is a manufacturing term referring to a system to notify management, maintenance, and other workers of a quality or process problem. The alert can be activated manually by a worker using a pullcord or button or may be activated automatically ...

Black company (Japanese term)

A black company, also referred to in English as a black corporation or black business, is a Japanese term for an exploitative sweatshop-type employment system. While the term "sweatshop" is associated with manufacturing, and the garment trade in ...

Continual improvement process

A continual improvement process, also often called a continuous improvement process, is an ongoing effort to improve products, services, or processes. These efforts can seek "incremental" improvement over time or "breakthrough" improvement all at ...

Failure mode and effects analysis

Failure mode and effects analysis is the process of reviewing as many components, assemblies, and subsystems as possible to identify potential failure modes in a system and their causes and effects. For each component, the failure modes and their ...

Gemba

Genba is a Japanese term meaning "the actual place". Japanese detectives call the crime scene genba, and Japanese TV reporters may refer to themselves as reporting from genba. In business, genba refers to the place where value is created; in manu ...

Genchi Genbutsu

Genchi Genbutsu literally translates "real location, real thing” and it is a key principle of the Toyota Production System. The principle is sometimes referred to as "go and see." It suggests that in order to truly understand a situation one need ...

Gōdō gaisha

A gōdō gaisha, or godo kaisha, abbreviated GK, is a type of business organization in Japan modeled after the American limited liability company, hence its nickname as the "Japanese LLC". It is a type of mochibun kaisha distinguished by offering l ...

Heijunka box

A heijunka box is a visual scheduling tool of used in heijunka, a concept originally created by Toyota for achieving a smoother production flow. While heijunka is the smoothing of production, the heijunka box is the name of a specific tool used i ...

Ho-Ren-So

"Hō-Ren-Sō" is a business mantra or mnemonic acronym in Japanese business culture. It is an "abbreviation of Hōkoku ", Renraku and Sōdan ", and is more memorable as a homonym of hōrensō, the Japanese word for "spinach". It is utilized as a basic ...

Hoshin Kanri

Hoshin Kanri is a 7-step process used in strategic planning in which strategic goals are communicated throughout the company and then put into action. The Hoshin Kanri strategic planning system originated from post-war Japan, but has since spread ...

Intermediary corporation

An intermediary corporation or intermediate corporation is a type of corporation which existed under Japanese law from 2002 until 2008. It was superseded by the general corporation on December 1, 2008. The intermediary corporation was designed to ...

Kabushiki gaisha

A kabushiki gaisha or kabushiki kaisha, commonly abbreviated KK, is a type of company defined under the Companies Act of Japan. The term is often translated as "stock company", "joint-stock company" or "stock corporation".

Kaikaku

Kaikaku, is the Japanese term for "radical change". In business, Kaikaku is concerned with making fundamental and radical changes to a production system, unlike Kaizen which is focused on incremental changes. Both Kaizen and Kaikaku can be applie ...

Kaizen

Kaizen is a concept referring to business activities that continuously improve all functions and involve all employees from the CEO to the assembly line workers. Kaizen is the Sino-Japanese word for "improvement". Kaizen also applies to processes ...

Kanban (development)

Kanban is a lean method to manage and improve work across human systems. This approach aims to manage work by balancing demands with available capacity, and by improving the handling of system-level bottlenecks. Work items are visualized to give ...

Kanban board

A Kanban board is one of the tools that can be used to implement Kanban to manage work at a personal or organizational level. Kanban boards visually depict work at various stages of a process using cards to represent work items and columns to rep ...

Keiretsu

A keiretsu is a set of companies with interlocking business relationships and shareholdings. In the legal sense, it is a type of informal business group that are loosely organized alliances within the social world of Japans business community. Th ...

Kyariaūman

A kyariaūman is a Japanese term for a career woman. The term refers to the type of Japanese woman, married or not, that pursues a career to make a living and for personal advancement rather than being a housewife without occupation outside the ho ...

Machine orders

Machine orders data is a figure issued by Japan Machine Tool Builders Association every month. It serves as one indicator of the Japanese economy. In the forex market, the release of such data is often followed by sharp change in currency exchang ...

Mochibun kaisha

Mochibun kaisha are a class of corporations under Japanese law. While mochibun kaisha have legal personality as corporations, their internal functions are similar to partnerships, as they are both owned and operated by a single group of members.

Mottainai

Mottainai is a term of Japanese origin that has been used by environmentalists. The term in Japanese conveys a sense of regret over waste; the exclamation Mottainai! can translate as "What a waste!" Japanese environmentalists have used the term t ...