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Multi-Evaporator System

A multi-evaporator system is a vapor-compression refrigeration system generally consisting of four major components: Condenser Thermal expansion valve Evaporator Compressor Sometimes in a refrigerator several loads are varied. Refrigerators used ...

Nesting (process)

In manufacturing industry, Nesting refers to the process of laying out cutting patterns to minimize the raw material waste. Examples include manufacturing parts from flat raw material such as sheet metal. Such efforts can also be applied to addit ...

Olefin conversion technology

Olefin Conversion Technology, also called the Phillips Triolefin Process, is the industrial process that interconverts propylene with ethylene and 2-butenes. The process is also called the ethylene to propylene process. In ETP, ethylene is dimeri ...

Olefin metathesis

Olefin metathesis is an organic reaction that entails the redistribution of fragments of alkenes by the scission and regeneration of carbon-carbon double bonds. Because of the relative simplicity of olefin metathesis, it often creates fewer undes ...

Open-pan salt making

Open-pan salt making is a method of salt production wherein salt is extracted from brine using vacuum pans. The brine is heated in a partial vacuum to lower the boiling point. In the past salt has been extracted by heating the brine in pans opera ...

Ostwald process

The Ostwald process is a chemical process used for making nitric acid. Wilhelm Ostwald developed the process, and he patented it in 1902. The Ostwald process is a mainstay of the modern chemical industry, and it provides the main raw material for ...

Paint stripper

Paint stripper, or paint remover, is a chemical product designed to remove paint, finishes, and coatings while also cleaning the underlying surface. The products material safety data sheet provides more safety information than its product labels. ...

Parts cleaning

Parts cleaning is essential to many industrial processes, as a prelude to surface finishing or to protect sensitive components. Electroplating is particularly sensitive to part cleanliness, since molecular layers of oil can prevent adhesion of th ...

Perforation

A perforation is a small hole in a thin material or web. There is usually more than one perforation in an organized fashion, where all of the holes collectively are called a perforation. The process of creating perforations is called perforating, ...

Peroxide process

The peroxide process is a method for the industrial production of hydrazine. In this process hydrogen peroxide is used as an oxidant instead of sodium hypochlorite, which is traditionally used to generate hydrazine. The main advantage of the pero ...

Phillips catalyst

The Phillips catalyst, or the Phillips supported chromium catalyst, is the catalyst used to produce approximately half of the worlds polyethylene. A heterogeneous catalyst, it consists of a chromium oxide supported on silica gel. Polyethylene, th ...

Photonic curing

Photonic curing is the high-temperature thermal processing of a thin film using pulsed light from a flashlamp. When this transient processing is done on a low-temperature substrate such as plastic or paper, it is possible to attain a significantl ...

Pilot plant

A pilot plant is a pre-commercial production system that employs new production technology and/or produces small volumes of new technology-based products, mainly for the purpose of learning about the new technology. The knowledge obtained is then ...

Plating

Plating is a surface covering in which a metal is deposited on a conductive surface. Plating has been done for hundreds of years; it is also critical for modern technology. Plating is used to decorate objects, for corrosion inhibition, to improve ...

Polishing

Polishing is the process of creating a smooth and shiny surface by rubbing it or using a chemical action, leaving a surface with a significant specular reflection In some materials, polishing is also able to reduce diffuse reflection to minimal v ...

Priming (science)

Priming is a cleaning and preparation process that involves cleaning scientific equipment with the same liquid chemical it will come into contact with during the experiment. During scientific experiments that require high levels of accuracy and i ...

Propane refrigeration

Propane refrigeration is a type of compression refrigeration. Propane has been used successfully in industrial refrigeration for many years, and is emerging as an increasingly viable alternative for homes and businesses. Propanes operating pressu ...

Pugmill

A pugmill or pug mill is a machine in which clay or other materials are mixed into a plastic state or a similar machine for the trituration of ore. Industrial applications are found in pottery, bricks, cement and some parts of the concrete and as ...

Rapid casting

Rapid casting is an integration of conventional casting with rapid prototyping/3D printing. In this technique disposable pattern used for forming mold are created with 3d printing techniques like fused deposition, stereo lithography or any other ...

Raschig ring

Raschig rings are pieces of tube, approximately equal in length and diameter, used in large numbers as a packed bed within columns for distillations and other chemical engineering processes. They are usually ceramic or metal and provide a large s ...

Refining

Refining is the process of purification of a substance or a form. The term is usually used of a natural resource that is almost in a usable form, but which is more useful in its pure form. For instance, most types of natural petroleum will burn s ...

Reflux

Reflux is a technique involving the condensation of vapors and the return of this condensate to the system from which it originated. It is used in industrial and laboratory distillations. It is also used in chemistry to supply energy to reactions ...

Rendering (animal products)

Rendering is a process that converts waste animal tissue into stable, usable materials. Rendering can refer to any processing of animal products into more useful materials, or, more narrowly, to the rendering of whole animal fatty tissue into pur ...

Resin dispensing

A resin dispensing system is a technical installation to process casting resin for the purpose of filling, sealing, covering or soaking technical parts, especially in the field of electricity and electronics like transformers, LCDs and other devi ...

Roll bonding

Roll bonding is a solid state, cold welding process, obtained through flat rolling of sheet metals. In roll bonding, two or more layers of different metals are passed through a pair of flat rollers under sufficient pressure to bond the layers. Th ...

Scoring (industrial process)

Scoring is a process in which one cuts a groove into rigid material. This groove is used to either break the material along the slit, for decoration, or act as a guideline for other processes such as painting. It can also be used to allow materia ...

Scrubber

Scrubber systems are a diverse group of air pollution control devices that can be used to remove some particulates and/or gases from industrial exhaust streams. The first air scrubber was designed to remove carbon dioxide from the air of an early ...

Sepro Mineral Systems

Sepro Mineral Systems Corp. is a multinational corporation founded in 1987 and headquartered in British Columbia, Canada. The outcome of the acquisition of Sepro Mineral Processing International by Falcon Concentrators in 2008, the companies key ...

Shaping processes in crystal growth

Shaping processes in crystal growth are a collection of techniques for growing bulk crystals of a defined shape from a melt, usually by constraining the shape of the liquid meniscus by means of a mechanical shaper. Crystals are commonly grown as ...

Shell–Paques process

The Shell–Paques process, also known by the trade name of Thiopaq O&G, is a gas desulfurization technology for the removal of hydrogen sulfide from natural-, refinery-, synthesis- and biogas. The process was initially named after the Shell Oi ...

Shrink-fitting

Shrink-fitting is a technique in which an interference fit is achieved by a relative size change after assembly. This is usually achieved by heating or cooling one component before assembly and allowing it to return to the ambient temperature aft ...

Sicilian method

The Sicilian method was one of the first ways to extract sulfur from underground deposits. It was the only industrial method of recovering sulfur from elemental deposits until replaced by the Frasch process. Most of the worlds sulfur was obtained ...

Sinter plant

Sinter plants agglomerate iron ore fines with other fine materials at high temperature, to create a product that can be used in a blast furnace. The final product, a sinter, is a small, irregular nodule of iron mixed with small amounts of other m ...

Slicer (3D printing)

The slicer, also called slicing software, is a computer software used in the majority of 3D printing processes for the conversion of a 3D object model to specific instructions for the printer. In particular, the conversion from a model in STL for ...

Snailbeach Countryside Site

Snailbeach Countryside Site is an industrial archeology site in Shropshire. It is located three 3 miles south of the village of Pontesbury and around 12 miles from the county town of Shrewsbury. At peak of production during the 19th century, it w ...

Sodablasting

Sodablasting is a mild form of abrasive blasting in which sodium bicarbonate particles are blasted against a surface using compressed air. It has a much milder abrasive effect than sandblasting. An early use was in the conservation-restoration of ...

Sol–gel process

In materials science, the sol–gel process is a method for producing solid materials from small molecules. The method is used for the fabrication of metal oxides, especially the oxides of silicon and titanium. The process involves conversion of mo ...

Solvent degreasing

Solvent degreasing is a process used to prepare a part for further operations such as electroplating or painting. Typically it uses petroleum, chlorine, dry ice or alcohol based solvents to dissolve the machining fluids and other contaminants tha ...

Spark plasma sintering

Spark plasma sintering, also known as field assisted sintering technique or pulsed electric current sintering, is a sintering technique. The main characteristic of SPS is that the pulsed or unpulsed DC or AC current directly passes through the gr ...

Spin coating

Spin coating is a procedure used to deposit uniform thin films onto flat substrates. Usually a small amount of coating material is applied on the center of the substrate, which is either spinning at low speed or not spinning at all. The substrate ...

Steel belt

They are generally made from carbon steel or stainless steel. Stainless steel belts are corrosion resistant and provide excellent surface quality. Stainless steel belts are used primarily in the chemical, food, rubber, plastic, wood, and laminate ...

Strontian process

The strontian process is an obsolete chemical method to recover sugar from molasses. Its use in Europe peaked in the middle of the 19th century. The name strontian comes from the Scottish village Strontian where the source mineral strontianite wa ...

Submerged-arc furnace for phosphorus production

The Submerged-arc furnace for phosphorus production is a particular sub-type of electric arc furnace used to produce phosphorus and other products. Submerged arc furnaces are mainly used for the production of ferroalloys. The nomenclature submerg ...

Substrate (materials science)

Substrate is a term used in materials science to describe the base material on which processing is conducted to produce new film or layers of material such as deposited coatings. A typical substrate might be a metal, onto which a coating might be ...

Supercritical drying

Supercritical drying, also known as critical point drying, is a process to remove liquid in a precise and controlled way. It is useful in the production of microelectromechanical systems, the drying of spices, the production of aerogel, the decaf ...

Supercritical fluid extraction

Supercritical fluid extraction is the process of separating one component from another using supercritical fluids as the extracting solvent. Extraction is usually from a solid matrix, but can also be from liquids. SFE can be used as a sample prep ...

Talalay process

The Talalay process is a method of producing molded pieces of latex foam rubber. A liquid latex rubber base is introduced to a closed mold and is then vacuumed of air. The mold is then frozen to stabilize the cell structure. Carbon dioxide gas is ...

Telomerization

Telomerization is a radical polymerization reaction where a chain transfer limits the size of the oligomer molecule product - the telomer. Telomerization requires a telogen to react with at least one unsaturated taxogen molecule. Fluorotelomers a ...

Textile bleaching

Textile bleaching is one of the stages in the manufacture of textiles. All raw textile materials, when they are in natural form, are known as greige material. This greige material will have its natural color, odor and impurities that are not suit ...

Thermal cleaning

Thermal cleaning is a combined process involving pyrolysis and oxidation. As an industrial application, thermal cleaning is used to remove organic substances such as polymers, plastics and coatings from parts, products or production components li ...