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Cathodic arc deposition

Cathodic arc deposition or Arc-PVD is a physical vapor deposition technique in which an electric arc is used to vaporize material from a cathode target. The vaporized material then condenses on a substrate, forming a thin film. The technique can ...

Cativa process

The Cativa process is a method for the production of acetic acid by the carbonylation of methanol. The technology, which is similar to the Monsanto process, was developed by BP Chemicals and is under license by BP Plc. The process is based on an ...

Cemented carbide drawing die

Cemented carbide as a tool material has been increasingly used for cutting tools, wear-resistant tools, impact-resistant tools, and other products with special purpose. Cemented carbide was first used in stretching mold area and has gone through ...

Changeover

In manufacturing, changeover is the process of converting a line or machine from running one product to another. Changeover times can last from a few minutes to as much as several weeks in the case of automobile manufacturers retooling for new mo ...

Chemical process

In a scientific sense, a chemical process is a method or means of somehow changing one or more chemicals or chemical compounds. Such a chemical process can occur by itself or be caused by an outside force, and involves a chemical reaction of some ...

Chemical vapor deposition

Chemical vapor deposition is a vacuum deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials. The process is often used in the semiconductor industry to produce thin films. In typical CVD, the wafer substrate is exposed ...

Chimney

A chimney is an architectural ventilation structure made of masonry, clay or metal that isolates hot toxic exhaust gases or smoke produced by a boiler, stove, furnace, incinerator or fireplace from human living areas. Chimneys are typically verti ...

Chromatography in blood processing

Chromatography is a physical method of separation that distributes the components you want to separate between two phases, one stationary, the other moving in a definite direction. Cold ethanol precipitation, developed by Cohn in 1946, manipulate ...

Cleanability

Cleanability is a term used in clean productions. In order to ensure optimum cleanability of the surfaces of machines and equipment, they must fulfil certain requirements. Where surfaces come into contact with media, no deposits may be formed whi ...

Cohn process

The Cohn process, developed by Edwin J. Cohn, is a series of purification steps with the purpose of extracting albumin from blood plasma. The process is based on the differential solubility of albumin and other plasma proteins based on pH, ethano ...

Cold spraying

Gas dynamic cold spraying or cold spraying is a coating deposition method. Solid powders are accelerated in a supersonic gas jet to velocities up to ca. 1200 m/s. During impact with the substrate, particles undergo plastic deformation and adhere ...

Comminution

Comminution is the reduction of solid materials from one average particle size to a smaller average particle size, by crushing, grinding, cutting, vibrating, or other processes. In geology, it occurs naturally during faulting in the upper part of ...

Cook–Craigie plan

The Cook–Craigie plan is an approach to the development process of civil and military aircraft that can dramatically reduce the time needed to bring a new design into service. In the late 1940s, USAF Major Generals Laurence C. Craigie, deputy chi ...

Copper slag

Copper slag is a by-product of copper extraction by smelting. During smelting, impurities become slag which floats on the molten metal. Slag that is quenched in water produces angular granules which are disposed of as waste or utilized as discuss ...

Countercurrent exchange

Countercurrent exchange is a mechanism occurring in nature and mimicked in industry and engineering, in which there is a crossover of some property, usually heat or some chemical, between two flowing bodies flowing in opposite directions to each ...

Creamery

In a dairy, the creamery is the location of cream processing. Cream is separated from whole milk; pasteurization is done to the skimmed milk and cream separately. Whole milk for sale has had some cream returned to the skimmed milk. The creamery i ...

Cryogenic nitrogen plant

Nitrogen, as an element of great technical importance, can be produced in a cryogenic nitrogen plant with a purity of more than 99.9999%. Air inside a distillation column is separated at cryogenic temperatures to produce high purity nitrogen with ...

Cryogenic oxygen plant

A cryogenic oxygen plant is an industrial facility that creates molecular oxygen at relatively high purity. Oxygen is the most common element in the earths crust and the second largest industrial gas. This process was pioneered by Dr. Carl von Li ...

Crystal bar process

The crystal bar process also known as iodide process or the van Arkel–de Boer process was developed by Anton Eduard van Arkel and Jan Hendrik de Boer in 1925. This process was the first industrial process for the commercial production of pure duc ...

Curtain coating

Curtain coating is a process that creates an uninterrupted curtain of fluid that falls onto a substrate. The substrate is transported on a conveyor belt or calender rolls at a regulated speed through the curtain to ensure an even coat of the die. ...

Cyclical industrial dynamics

Industrial dynamics is the study of the means and processes through which industries change over time, through their own processes of evolution – as first analyzed by Joseph Schumpeter. It is the complementary study to that of an industry’s compa ...

Czochralski process

The Czochralski method, also Czochralski technique or Czochralski process, is a method of crystal growth used to obtain single crystals of semiconductors, metals, salts and synthetic gemstones. The method is named after Polish scientist Jan Czoch ...

Debubblizer

A debubblizer is a surface tension reducing agent that is used to reduce the prevalence of bubbles in industrial processes such as wax casting. In some manufacturing operations, it is also referred to as surfactant or a wetting agent that is spra ...

Defoamer

A defoamer or an anti-foaming agent is a chemical additive that reduces and hinders the formation of foam in industrial process liquids. The terms anti-foam agent and defoamer are often used interchangeably. Strictly speaking, defoamers eliminate ...

Deinking

Deinking is the industrial process of removing printing ink from paperfibers of recycled paper to make deinked pulp. The key in the deinking process is the ability to detach ink from the fibers. This is achieved by a combination of mechanical act ...

Demonstration plant

A demonstration plant is an industrial system used to validate an industrial process for commercialization. It is larger than a pilot plant, and is the final stage in research, development and demonstration of a new process. Demonstration plants ...

Deoxidization

Deoxidization is a method used in metallurgy to remove the oxygen content during steel manufacturing. In contrast, antioxidants are used for stabilization, such as in the storage of food. Deoxidation is important in the steelmaking process as oxy ...

Deville process

The Deville process was the first industrial process used to produce alumina from bauxite. The Frenchman Henri Sainte-Claire Deville invented the process in 1859. It is sometimes called the Deville-Pechiney process. It is based on the extraction ...

Differential centrifugation

Differential centrifugation is a common procedure in biochemistry and cell biology used to separate organelles and other sub-cellular particles on the basis of sedimentation rate. Although often applied in biological analysis, differential centri ...

Direct part marking

Direct part marking is a process to permanently mark parts with product information including serial numbers, part numbers, date codes, and barcodes. This is done to allow the tracking of parts through the full life cycle. The interpretation of p ...

Dough sheeting

Dough is compressed between two or more rotating rollers. When done the right way, a smooth and consistent dough sheet is produced. The dough then passes one or several gauging rollers mostly on conveyors that reduce the dough to the required thi ...

Dry-ice blasting

Dry ice blasting is a form of carbon dioxide cleaning, where dry ice, the solid form of carbon dioxide, is accelerated in a pressurized air stream and directed at a surface in order to clean it. The method is similar to other forms of media blast ...

Dump leaching

Dump leaching is an industrial process to extract precious metals and copper from ores. Dump leaching is similar to heap leaching, however in the case of dump leaching ore is taken directly from the mine and stacked on the leach pad without crush ...

Ebullated bed reactor

Ebullated bed reactors are a type of fluidized bed reactor that utilizes ebullition, or bubbling, to achieve appropriate distribution of reactants and catalysts. The ebullated-bed technology utilizes a three-phase reactor, and is most applicable ...

Electrochemical engineering

Electrochemical engineering is the branch of chemical engineering dealing with the technological applications of electrochemical phenomena, such as electrosynthesis of chemicals, electrowinning and refining of metals, flow batteries and fuel cell ...

Electrolysis

In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction. Electrolysis is commercially important as a stage in the separation of elements from naturall ...

Electrolytic process

An electrolytic process is the use of electrolysis industrially to refine metals or compounds at a high purity and low cost. Some examples are the Hall-Heroult process used for aluminium, or the production of hydrogen from water. Electrolysis is ...

Electrophoretic deposition

Electrophoretic deposition, is a term for a broad range of industrial processes which includes electrocoating, cathodic electrodeposition, anodic electrodeposition, and electrophoretic coating, or electrophoretic painting. A characteristic featur ...

Electrospinning

Electrospinning is a fiber production method which uses electric force to draw charged threads of polymer solutions or polymer melts up to fiber diameters in the order of some hundred nanometers. Electrospinning shares characteristics of both ele ...

Electrosynthesis

Electrosynthesis in chemistry is the synthesis of chemical compounds in an electrochemical cell. Compared to ordinary redox reaction, electrosynthesis sometimes offers improved selectivity and yields. Electrosynthesis is actively studied as a sci ...

Exxon donor solvent process

Exxon donor solvent process is a coal liquefaction process developed by Exxon Research and Engineering Company, starting in 1966. The process converts solid coal directly to liquid synthetic fuels which could be used as a substitute for petroleum ...

Feeder line (manufacturing)

A feeder line is a secondary assembly line which provides parts for use in a primary assembly line. Researchers assert that the traditional level scheduling methodology of assembly line planning is not effective unless feeder lines provide parts ...

Fiber modification

Fibre modification is a research field in which researchers aim at developing and applying technologies to impart new properties to natural fibres such as those in paper, in order to increase their functionality. Research areas in this field incl ...

Fiberize

Fiberization is a manufacturing process that has been used to make objects such as insulation, asphalt, and mineral wood. Optical fiber wiring is created using this method as well.

FIRJAN System

FIRJAN System is a network of private nonprofit organization with more than ten thousand associates. Its mission is to promote business competitiveness, education and quality of life of industrial workers and the whole society, in the state of Ri ...

Fixed position assembly

Fixed position assembly refers to an assembly system or situation in which the product does not move while being assembled, this configuration is usually contrasted in operations management and industrial engineering with assembly lines. Dimensio ...

Flensing

Flensing is the removing of the blubber or outer integument of whales, separating it from the animals meat. Processing the blubber into whale oil was the key step that transformed a whale carcass into a stable, transportable commodity. It was an ...

Float-zone silicon

Float-zone silicon is very pure silicon obtained by vertical zone melting. The process was developed at Bell Labs by Henry Theuerer in 1955 as a modification of a method developed by William Gardner Pfann for germanium. In the vertical configurat ...

Flow chemistry

In flow chemistry, a chemical reaction is run in a continuously flowing stream rather than in batch production. In other words, pumps move fluid into a tube, and where tubes join one another, the fluids contact one another. If these fluids are re ...

Flue-gas stack

A flue-gas stack, also known as a smoke stack, chimney stack or simply as a stack, is a type of chimney, a vertical pipe, channel or similar structure through which combustion product gases called flue gases are exhausted to the outside air. Flue ...