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Music law

Music Law refers to legal aspects of the music industry, and certain legal aspects in other sectors of the entertainment industry. The music industry includes record labels, music publishers, merchandisers, the live events sector and of course pe ...

Naval Nuclear Propulsion Information

Naval Nuclear Propulsion Information is a category of intellectual capital defined by the United States Navy to be "classified or unclassified information concerning the design, arrangement, development, manufacture, testing, operation, administr ...

Non-disclosure agreement

A non-disclosure agreement, also known as a confidentiality agreement, confidential disclosure agreement, proprietary information agreement or secrecy agreement, is a legal contract between at least two parties that outlines confidential material ...

Notorious markets

Notorious markets is a term used in the United States to describe websites and physical markets where large-scale intellectual property infringement takes place.

Open music model

The open music model is an economic and technological framework for the recording industry based on research conducted at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. It predicts that the playback of prerecorded music will be regarded as a service ...

Open-core model

The open-core model is a business model for the monetization of commercially produced open-source software. Coined by Andrew Lampitt in 2008, the open-core model primarily involves offering a "core" or feature-limited version of a software produc ...

Open-source model

The open-source model is a decentralized software development model that encourages open collaboration. A main principle of open-source software development is peer production, with products such as source code, blueprints, and documentation free ...

Orphan work

An orphan work is a copyright-protected work for which rightsholders are positively indeterminate or uncontactable. Sometimes the names of the originators or rightsholders are known, yet it is impossible to contact them because additional details ...

Paid content

Paid content is content on the Internet – such as text, graphics, video and downloads – which is paid for. Paid content is usually copyrighted. Some internet content has always historically been paid for - until recently there has been little dis ...

Paracopyright

Paracopyright is legal protection above and beyond traditional copyright. The most often cited example is "legal protection for technical measures" from the 1996 WIPO Internet treaties. Paracopyright provisions in these treaties are not about the ...

Parallel import

A parallel import is a non-counterfeit product imported from another country without the permission of the intellectual property owner. Parallel imports are often referred to as grey product and are implicated in issues of international trade, an ...

Paraphrasing of copyrighted material

Paraphrasing of copyrighted material may reduce the probability that a court will find that copyright has been infringed; however, there have been many cases where a paraphrase that uses quite different words and sentence structure has been found ...

Patent analysis

Patent analysis is a family of techniques and tools for studying the information present within and attached to patents, a major form of intellectual property. Although this has traditionally been done using spreadsheet-based data analysis method ...

Patents Court

For the general concept of patent court, see patent court. The Patents Court is a specialist court within the Chancery Division of the High Court of Justice of England and Wales. It deals with disputes relating to intellectual property, including ...

Paying public domain

Paying public domain is a copyright regime where copies, presentations or performances of a work that has entered the public domain are still subject to royalties, which are payable to the state or to an authors association. The principle is that ...

Scour Inc.

Scour was founded by five students from the Computer Science Department of the University of California, Los Angeles UCLA in December 1997. By mid-1998 Ilya Haykinson and Travis Kalanick, also Computer Science students at UCLA joined the founding ...

Photography and the law

The intellectual property rights on photographs are protected in different jurisdictions by the laws governing copyright and moral rights. In some cases photography may be restricted by civil or criminal law. Publishing certain photographs can be ...

Plain tobacco packaging

Plain tobacco packaging, also known as generic, neutral, standardised or homogeneous packaging, is packaging of tobacco products, typically cigarettes, without any branding, including only the brand name in a mandated size, font and place on the ...

Priority right

In patent, industrial design rights and trademark laws, a priority right or right of priority is a time-limited right, triggered by the first filing of an application for a patent, an industrial design or a trademark respectively. The priority ri ...

Production write-through contract

A production write-through contract is an arrangement, specific to the film industry, where a screenwriter enters into a commercial agreement with a studio that guarantees the screenwriter the right to do all the necessary rewrites to his or her ...

Proposed directive on criminal measures aimed at ensuring the enforcement of intellectual property rights

The European Union directive on criminal measures aimed at ensuring the enforcement of intellectual property rights was a proposal from the European Commission for a directive aimed "to supplement Directive 2004/48/EC of 29 April 2004 on the enfo ...

Public domain

The public domain consists of all the creative work to which no exclusive intellectual property rights apply. Those rights may have expired, been forfeited, expressly waived, or may be inapplicable. As examples, the works of William Shakespeare a ...

Public Lending Right

A Public Lending Right programme is a programme intended to either compensate authors for the potential loss of sales from their works being available in public libraries or as a governmental support of the arts, through support of works availabl ...

Recording artist royalties

Recording artist royalties are a vital part of an artists income and are gained through the digital and retail sale of their music along with the use of their music in streaming services, broadcasting, and in other forms of media such as TV shows ...

Religious Technology Center

The Religious Technology Center is an American non-profit corporation that was founded in 1982 by the Church of Scientology to control and oversee the use of all of the trademarks, symbols and texts of Scientology and Dianetics. Although RTC cont ...

Royalty payment

A royalty is a payment made by one party to another that owns a particular asset, for the right to ongoing use of that asset. Royalties are typically agreed upon as a percentage of gross or net revenues derived from the use of an asset or a fixed ...

Schwegman, Lundberg & Woessner, P.A.

Schwegman Lundberg & Woessner, P.A. is a Minneapolis, Minnesota based intellectual property law firm founded by three attorneys in December 1993. The firm was one of the first patent law firms in the United States to focus solely on patent prosec ...

SCO–Linux disputes

The SCO–Linux disputes are a series of legal and public disputes between the software company SCO Group and various Linux vendors and users. The SCO Group alleges that its license agreements with IBM means that source code that IBM wrote and dona ...

Secondary liability

Secondary liability, or indirect infringement, arises when a party materially contributes to, facilitates, induces, or is otherwise responsible for directly infringing acts carried out by another party. The US has statutorily codified secondary l ...

Seeding (computing)

In computing and specifically peer-to-peer file sharing, seeding is the uploading of already downloaded content for others to download from. A peer, a computer that is connected to the network, becomes a seed when having acquired the entire set o ...

Service mark

A service mark or servicemark is a trademark used in the United States and several other countries to identify a service rather than a product. When a service mark is federally registered, the standard registration symbol ® or "Reg U.S. Pat & TM ...

Soft intellectual property

Soft intellectual property, abbreviated to "soft IP") is sometimes used to refer to trademarks, copyright, design rights and passing off, in contrast to "hard intellectual property", which is sometimes used to refer to patents. Use of this phrase ...

Soft IP

The phrase "soft intellectual property" has other meanings, see soft intellectual property. Soft IP or soft intellectual property is a proposed system that would enable to capture and protection of IP, with provision for making licenses available ...

Special 301 Report

The Special 301 Report is prepared annually by the Office of the United States Trade Representative that identifies trade barriers to United States companies and products due to the intellectual property laws, such as copyright, patents and trade ...

Supplementary protection certificate

In the European Economic Area, a supplementary protection certificate is a sui generis intellectual property right that extends the duration of certain rights associated with a patent. It enters into force after expiry of a patent upon which it i ...

Sweat of the brow

Sweat of the brow is an intellectual property law doctrine, chiefly related to copyright law. According to this doctrine, an author gains rights through simple diligence during the creation of a work, such as a database, or a directory. Substanti ...

Tax amortization benefit

In accounting, tax amortization benefit refers to the present value of income tax savings resulting from the tax deduction generated by the amortization of an intangible asset.

Technology brokering

The idea of technology brokering is to span multiple, otherwise disconnected industries, to see how existing technologies could be used to create breakthrough innovations in other markets. Technology brokering requires companies to be strong in t ...

Third-party standing

Third party standing is a term of the law of civil procedure that describes when one party may file a lawsuit or assert a defense in which the rights of third parties are asserted. In the United States, this is generally prohibited, as a party ca ...

Trade dress

Trade dress is the characteristics of the visual appearance of a product or its packaging that signify the source of the product to consumers. Trade dress is a form of intellectual property.

Trade secret

Trade secrets are a type of intellectual property that comprise formulas, practices, processes, designs, instruments, patterns, or compilations of information that have inherent economic value because they are not generally known or readily ascer ...

Trademark

A trademark is a type of intellectual property consisting of a recognizable sign, design, or expression which identifies products or services of a particular source from those of others, although trademarks used to identify services are usually c ...

Trademark distinctiveness

Trademark distinctiveness is an important concept in the law governing trademarks and service marks. A trademark may be eligible for registration, or registrable, if it performs the essential trademark function, and has distinctive character. Reg ...

Trap street

In cartography, a trap street is a fictitious entry in the form of a misrepresented street on a map, often outside the area the map nominally covers, for the purpose of "trapping" potential copyright violators of the map who, if caught, would be ...

TuneSat

TuneSat is an online audio recognition service launched in 2009 which enables music copyright holders to detect where their work is being used. Rights owners upload their audio files, and TuneSat begins to search and track results of matches. Fou ...

Turnaround (filmmaking)

A turnaround or turnaround deal is an arrangement in the film industry whereby the production costs of a project which one studio has developed are declared a loss on the companys tax return, thereby preventing the studio from exploiting the prop ...

Intellectual property protection of typefaces

Typefaces, fonts, and their glyphs raise intellectual property considerations in copyright, trademark, design patent, and related laws. The copyright status of a typeface - and any font file that describes it digitally - varies between jurisdicti ...

2016 UCLA shooting

On June 1, 2016, two men were killed in a murder-suicide at a School of Engineering building on the campus of University of California, Los Angeles. The gunman was identified as Mainak Sarkar, an Indian-born 38-year-old former UCLA Ph.D student. ...

Wartime Law on Industrial Property (Japan)

Wartime Law on Industrial Property was a special law enacted by the Government of Japan in 1917, which declared that any patents owned by the nationals of countries in a state of war with Japan no longer had effect. The impact of this law was bot ...

Washington Redskins trademark dispute

The Washington Redskins trademark dispute was a legal effort by Native Americans to define the term "redskin" to be an offensive and disparaging racial slur to prevent the owners of the Washington Redskins football team from being able to maintai ...