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Bundling (antitrust law)

Bundling is the setting of the total price of a purchase of several products or services from one seller at a lower level than the sum of the prices of the products or services purchased separately from several sellers. Typically, one of the bund ...

Canadian Football Act

The Canadian Football Act, also known in its long title as An Act respecting Canadian Professional Football, was a proposed Act by the Parliament of Canada in April 1974 designed to give a government-protected monopoly over professional football ...

Cellophane paradox

The Cellophane Paradox describes a type of incorrect reasoning used in market regulation methods. The paradox arises when a firm sells a product with few substitutes, which in turn allows the firm to increase the price of that product. The origin ...

Competition Act

The Competition Act is a Canadian federal law governing competition law in Canada. The Act contains both criminal and civil provisions aimed at preventing anti-competitive practices in the marketplace. The Act is enforced and administered by the ...

The Competition Act, 2002

The Competition Act, 2002 was enacted by the Parliament of India and governs Indian competition law. It replaced the archaic The Monopolies and Restrictive Trade Practices Act, 1969. Under this legislation, the Competition Commission of India was ...

Competition and Consumer Act 2010

The Competition and Consumer Act 2010 is an Act of the Parliament of Australia. Prior to 1 January 2011, it was known as the Trade Practices Act 1974. The Act is the legislative vehicle for competition law in Australia, and seeks to promote compe ...

History of competition law

The history of competition law refers to attempts by governments to regulate competitive markets for goods and services, leading up to the modern competition or antitrust laws around the world today. The earliest records traces back to the effort ...

Competition Tribunal

The tribunal was first known under its former name, the Restrictive Trade Practices Commission. The Commission was empowered to investigate suspected offenses under the Combines Investigation Act, the precursor to the modern Competition Act.

Conscious parallelism

Conscious parallelism is a term used in competition law to describe pricing strategies among competitors in an oligopoly that occurs without an actual agreement between the players. Instead, one competitor will take the lead in raising or lowerin ...

Essential facilities doctrine

The essential facilities doctrine is a legal doctrine which describes a particular type of claim of monopolization made under competition laws. In general, it refers to a type of anti-competitive behavior in which a firm with market power uses a ...

European Union competition law

European competition law is the competition law in use within the European Union. It promotes the maintenance of competition within the European Single Market by regulating anti-competitive conduct by companies to ensure that they do not create c ...

European Union IBM competition cases

On July 26, 2010, the European Commission announced two separate antitrust investigations into International Business Machines. Both cases were related to alleged abuse of IBMs dominant position in the mainframe market. The first case followed co ...

European Union merger law

European Union merger law is a part of the law of the European Union. It is charged with regulating mergers between two or more entities in a corporate structure. This institution has jurisdiction over concentrations that might or might not imped ...

European Union vs. Google

Since 2010, the European Union has launched three separate antitrust investigations into Google for violating the EUs competition laws due to its dominant position in the market. These cases have resulted in formal charges against Google related ...

Group boycott

In competition law, a group boycott is a type of secondary boycott in which two or more competitors in a relevant market refuse to conduct business with a firm unless the firm agrees to cease doing business with an actual or potential competitor ...

Herfindahl–Hirschman Index

The Herfindahl index is a measure of the size of firms in relation to the industry and an indicator of the amount of competition among them. Named after economists Orris C. Herfindahl and Albert O. Hirschman, it is an economic concept widely appl ...

Illegal per se

In US law, the term illegal per se means that the act is inherently illegal. Thus, an act is illegal without extrinsic proof of any surrounding circumstances such as lack of scienter or other defenses. Acts are made illegal per se by statute, con ...

Institute for Consumer Antitrust Studies

The Institute for Consumer Antitrust Studies is a non-partisan, independent academic center designed to explore the impact of antitrust enforcement on the individual consumer and public, and to shape policy issues. It is located at Loyola Univers ...

Institute of Competition Law

Institute of Competition Law is a think tank focused on bringing together government regulators, private practitioners, and academics to study and shape antitrust policy on an international scale. The Institute seeks to foster discussion about an ...

International Competition Network

The International Competition Network is an informal, virtual network that seeks to facilitate cooperation between competition law authorities globally. It was established in 2001 after the publication of a Final Report of the International Compe ...

Israel's Anti-Concentration Law

Israels Anti-Concentration Law, formally" A Law for Promotion of Competition and Reduction of Concentration”, is a law passed in December 2013 which seeks to reduce the size of existing large Israeli business groups organized in a pyramidal holdi ...

Merger control

Merger control refers to the procedure of reviewing mergers and acquisitions under antitrust / competition law. Over 130 nations worldwide have adopted a regime providing for merger control. National or supernational competition agencies such as ...

Merger doctrine (antitrust law)

In U.S. antitrust law, the phrase merger doctrine is used to broadly describe the approaches that courts have taken to address mergers between corporations which might tend to reduce competition and raise prices. More specifically, courts tend to ...

Microsoft Corp. v. Commission

Microsoft Corp v Commission T-201/04 is a case brought by the European Commission of the European Union against Microsoft for abuse of its dominant position in the market. It started as a complaint from Sun Microsystems over Microsofts licensing ...

Orange-Book-Standard

Orange-Book-Standard is a decision issued on May 6, 2009 by the Federal Court of Justice of Germany on the interaction between patent law and technical standards, and more generally between intellectual property law and competition law. The Court ...

Philippine Competition Act

The Philippine Competition Act was signed into law by President Benigno S. Aquino III on July 21, 2015 and established the quasi-judicial Philippine Competition Commission to enforce the act. The act is intended to ensure efficient and fair marke ...

Relevant market

In competition law, a relevant market is a market in which a particular product or service is sold. It is the intersection of a relevant product market and a relevant geographic market. The European Commission defines a relevant market and its pr ...

Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1956

The Restrictive Trade Practices Act 1956 was an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom intended to enforce competition. It required that any agreement between companies that restricted trading should be placed on a public register unless gra ...

Royal Commission on Corporate Concentration

The commission was created by the Canadian federal government under Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau through Part I of the Inquiries Act by Order in Council of 1 May 1975, P.C. 1975-999, to study corporate concentration in Canada. The commission, wh ...

Small but significant and non-transitory increase in price

In competition law, before deciding whether companies have significant market power which would justify government intervention, the test of small but significant and non-transitory increase in price is used to define the relevant market in a con ...

Tying (commerce)

Tying is the practice of selling one product or service as a mandatory addition to the purchase of a different product or service. In legal terms, a tying sale makes the sale of one good to the de facto customer conditional on the purchase of a s ...

Vertical agreement

A vertical agreement is a term used in competition law to denote agreements between firms at different levels of the supply chain. For instance, a manufacturer of consumer electronics might have a vertical agreement with a retailer according to w ...

Air Travel Organisers' Licensing

Air Travel Organisers Licensing is a United Kingdom Civil Aviation Authority scheme to give financial protection to people who have purchased package holidays and flights from a member tour operator.

Assurance of voluntary compliance

In American law, an assurance of voluntary compliance is a legal device entered into between a state attorney general and an individual or business that the attorney general believes has or may in the future violate a consumer protection law. An ...

California Consumers Legal Remedies Act

The California Consumers Legal Remedies Act is the name for California Civil Code §§ 1750 et seq. The CLRA declare unlawful several "methods of competition and unfair or deceptive acts or practices undertaken by any person in a transaction intend ...

Consumer Credit Act 1974

The Consumer Credit Act 1974 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that significantly reformed the law relating to consumer credit within the United Kingdom. Prior to the Consumer Credit Act, legislation covering consumer credit was s ...

Consumer protection

Consumer protection is the practice of safeguarding buyers of goods and services, and the public, against unfair practices in the marketplace. Consumer protection measures are often established by law. Such laws are intended to prevent businesses ...

Consumer Protection Act

Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973 Bankruptcy Abuse Prevention and Consumer Protection Act, 2005 Internet Gambling Regulation, Consumer Protection, and Enforcement Act, 2009 Consumer Credit Protection Act, 1968 Telephone Consumer Pro ...

Credit CARD Act of 2009

The Credit Card Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 is a federal statute passed by the United States Congress and signed by U.S. President Barack Obama on May 22, 2009. It is comprehensive credit card reform legislation that ...

European consumer law

European consumer law concerns consumer protection within Europe, particularly through European Union law and the European Convention on Human Rights.

Fair Credit Billing Act

The Fair Credit Billing Act is a United States federal law enacted in 1974 as an amendment to the Truth in Lending Act. Its purpose is to protect consumers from unfair billing practices and to provide a mechanism for addressing billing errors in ...

Federal Service for the Oversight of Consumer Protection and Welfare

The Federal Service for Surveillance on Consumer Rights Protection and Human Wellbeing or Rospotrebnadzor is the federal service responsible for the supervision of consumer rights protection and human wellbeing in Russia. The service is submissiv ...

General Product Safety Regulations 2005

The General Product Safety Regulations 2005 is a 2005 Statutory Instrument of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that demands that "No producer shall product on the market unless the product is a safe product") and provides broad enforcement po ...

Informed consumer

The concept of the informed consumer is a fundamental one in the law of the European Union. Since the general Resolution of 1975, one of the primary objectives of the European Community, and then the European Union, has been the provision of info ...

Kapitalanlagegesetzbuch

1957: Gesetz uber Kapitalanlagegesellschaften KAGG, the Capital Investment Companies Act of 1957 KAGG 2005–2013: Investmentgesetz InvG, the German Investment Act de

Latent defect

In the law of the sale of property a latent defect is a fault in the property that could not have been discovered by a reasonably thorough inspection before the sale. The general law of the sale of property is caveat emptor let the buyer beware a ...

Lemon law

Lemon laws are American state laws that provide a remedy for purchasers of cars and other consumer goods in order to compensate for products that repeatedly fail to meet standards of quality and performance. Although there may be defective produc ...

Ley Organica de Proteccion de Datos de Caracter Personal

The Organic Law 15/1999 of December 13 on Protection of Personal Data was Spanish organic law that guaranteed and protected the processing of personal data, public liberties, and fundamental human rights, and especially of personal and family hon ...

Right to repeat performance

The right to repeat performance is a consumer right of remedy created under section 55 of the UK Consumer Rights Act 2015, which provides for a new right for a consumer to require a trader to perform a service again, if the trader is in breach of ...

Truth in Lending Act

The Truth in Lending Act of 1968 is a United States federal law designed to promote the informed use of consumer credit, by requiring disclosures about its terms and cost to standardize the manner in which costs associated with borrowing are calc ...