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Action Z

"Initiative Z" was the Czechoslovak communist regimes attempt to tap a volunteer work and community spirit toward supplementing local infrastructure and public facility improvement using volunteer work while the construction material and the logi ...

Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights

Article 4 of the European Convention on Human Rights prohibits slavery and forced labour. Conscription, national service, prison labour, service exacted in cases of emergency or calamity, and "normal civic obligations" are excepted from these def ...

Blackbirding

Blackbirding involves the coercion of people through deception and/or kidnapping to work as unpaid or poorly paid labourers in countries distant to their native land. The term has been most commonly applied to the large-scale taking of people ind ...

Construction soldier

A construction soldier was a non-combat role of the National Peoples Army, the armed forces of the German Democratic Republic, from 1964 to 1990. Bausoldaten were conscientious objectors who accepted conscription but refused armed service and ins ...

Corvee

Corvee) is a form of unpaid, unfree labour, which is intermittent in nature and which lasts limited periods of time: typically only a certain number of days work each year. Statute labour is a corvee imposed by a state for the purposes of public ...

Egyptian Labour Corps

The Egyptian Labour Corps was a group of Egyptian labourers who worked for the British Army in Egypt during the First World Wars Sinai and Palestine Campaign.

Encomienda

Encomienda) was a Spanish labor system that rewarded conquerors with the labor of particular groups of subject people. It was first established in Spain following the Christian recovery of their territories under Muslim rule. And it was applied o ...

Forced labor of Germans after World War II

In the years following World War II, large numbers of German civilians and captured soldiers were forced into labour by the Allied forces. The topic of using Germans as forced labour for reparations was first broached at the Tehran conference in ...

Forced Labour Convention

The Forced Labour Convention, the full title of which is the Convention Concerning Forced or Compulsory Labour, 1930, is one of eight ILO fundamental conventions of the International Labour Organization. Its object and purpose is to suppress the ...

Hacienda

A hacienda, in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar to a Roman latifundium. Some haciendas were plantations, mines or factories. Many haciendas combined these activities. The word is derived from the Spanish word "hacer" or " ...

Inboekstelsel

Inboekstelsel was a system of indentured child labour instituted by Europeans in Southern Africa during the 18th and 19th centuries. The word is derived from the Dutch verb inboeken, referring to the requirement of entering the names and details ...

Kafala system

The kafala system is an exploitative system used to monitor migrant laborers, working primarily in the construction and domestic sectors in Gulf Cooperation Council member states and a few neighbouring countries, namely Bahrain, Jordan, Kuwait, L ...

Labour battalion

Labour battalions have been a form of alternative service or unfree labour in various countries in lieu of or resembling regular military service. In some cases they were the result of some kind of discriminative segregation of the population, wh ...

Military Units to Aid Production

Military Units to Aid Production or UMAPs were agricultural labor camps operated by the Cuban government from November 1965 to July 1968 in the province of Camaguey. The UMAP camps served as a form of alternative civilian service for Cubans who c ...

Operation Netwing

Operation Netwing is a long-running United Kingdom law enforcement endeavour, headed by Bedfordshire & Hertfordshire Major Crime Unit, investigating allegations of forced labour and human trafficking in Bedfordshire, England by Irish Travellers. ...

Peruvian Amazon Company

The Peruvian Amazon Company, also called the Anglo-Peruvian Amazon Rubber Co, was a rubber boom company that operated in Peru in the late 1800s and early 1900s. Based in Iquitos, it became notorious for the ill treatment of its indigenous workers ...

Rear militia

The rear militia was a category of military service in Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union in 1918–1937. The composition of the rear militia called various so-called "unearned elements" that were not subject to conscription in combat units of the ...

Repartimiento

The Repartimiento was a colonial forced labor system imposed upon the indigenous population of Spanish America and the Philippines. In concept it was similar to other tribute-labor systems, such as the mita of the Inca Empire or the corvee of Anc ...

Shanghaiing

Shanghaiing or crimping is the practice of kidnapping people to serve as sailors by coercive techniques such as trickery, intimidation, or violence. Those engaged in this form of kidnapping were known as crimps. The related term press gang refers ...

Tianshui Association

Tianshui Association is a mutual assistance association in Japan of the 300 Japanese railway engineers who worked under forced labor for the construction of the Tianshui-Lanzhou Railway, Gansu Province, China.

Tlamemeh

Tlamemeh is a word that comes from the Nahuatl tlamama, meaning load. In Honduras and Mexico it means Indian laborer. The porters carried loads on their backs. In colonial times the tradition implied the servitude of the Indians, who in most case ...

Work for the Dole

Work for the Dole is an Australian federal government program that is a form of workfare, work-based welfare. It was first permanently enacted in 1998, having been trialed in 1997. It is one means by which job seekers can satisfy what the governm ...

Workfare

Workfare is an alternative, and controversial, way of providing money to otherwise unemployed or underemployed people, who are applying for social benefits. The term was first introduced by civil rights leader James Charles Evers in 1968; however ...

Workfare in the United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, workfare refers to government workfare policies whereby individuals must undertake work in return for their benefit payments or risk losing them. Workfare policies are politically controversial. Supporters claim that such p ...

Workforce

The workforce or labour force is the labour pool in employment. It is generally used to describe those working for a single company or industry, but can also apply to a geographic region like a city, state, or country. Within a company, its value ...

Active ageing

Active ageing is a concept recently deployed by the European Commission, the World Health Organization, and used also in Human Resource Management. This concept evokes the idea of longer activity, with a higher retirement age and working practice ...

Aging in the American workforce

The aging workforce, controversially referred to as The Silver Tsunami, refers to the rise in the median age of the United States workforce to levels unseen since the passage of the Social Security Act of 1935. It is projected that by the year 20 ...

Civilian noninstitutional population

In the United States, the civilian noninstitutional population refers to people 16 years of age and older residing in the 50 States and the District of Columbia who are not inmates of institutions, and who are not on active duty in the Armed Forces.

Distributed workforce

A distributed workforce is a workforce that reaches beyond the restrictions of a traditional office environment. A distributed workforce is dispersed geographically over a wide area – domestically or internationally. By installing key technologie ...

Economic activity rate

Economic activity rate, EAR, is the percentage of the population, both employed and unemployed, that constitutes the manpower supply of the labor market, regardless of their current labor status. This figure is a measure of the degree of success ...

Guest worker program

A guest worker program allows foreign workers to temporarily reside and work in a host country until a next round of workers is readily available to switch. Guest workers typically perform low or semi-skilled agricultural, industrial, or domestic ...

Labor force in the United States

The labor force is the actual number of people available for work and is the sum of the employed and the unemployed. The U.S. labor force was approximately 160 million persons in January 2018. The Bureau of Labor Statistics defines the labor forc ...

Labor market area

A labor market area is a geographic area or region defined for purposes of compiling, reporting, and evaluating employment, unemployment, workforce availability, and related topics. It can be defined as an economically integrated region within wh ...

National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education

The National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education is a partnership between government, academia, and the private sector focused supporting the countrys ability to address current and future cybersecurity education and workforce challenges throu ...

On-ramping

On-ramping is the process of re-entering the workforce after taking a career break. It is paired with the term "off-ramping", or exiting the workforce as a temporary career break. The Hidden Brain Drain, a taskforce led by economist Sylvia Ann He ...

Workforce productivity

Workforce productivity is the amount of goods and services that a group of workers produce in a given amount of time. It is one of several types of productivity that economists measure. Workforce productivity, often referred to as labor productiv ...

Shortage

In economics, a shortage or excess demand is a situation in which the demand for a product or service exceeds its supply in a market. It is the opposite of an excess supply.

Workforce Investment Board

Workforce Investment Boards were regional entities created to implement the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 in the United States, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of Palau and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The implementin ...

Workforce nationalization

Workforce Nationalization is a government initiative that can be described as the recruitment and employee development to encourage or often require the employment of native-born population in certain jobs or industry sectors, thus reducing a cou ...

Working class

The working class comprises those engaged in waged or salaried labour, especially in manual-labour occupations and industrial work. Working-class occupations include blue-collar jobs, some white-collar jobs, and most pink-collar jobs. Members of ...

Blue-collar worker

A blue-collar worker is a working class person who performs manual labor. Blue-collar work may involve skilled or unskilled labor. The type of work may involve manufacturing, mining, custodial work, farming, commercial fishing, landscaping, pest ...

Pink-collar worker

A pink-collar worker refers to someone working in the care-oriented career field or in fields historically considered to be women’s work. This may include jobs in the beauty industry, nursing, social work, teaching, secretarial work, or child car ...

Industrial working class

The proletariat is the class of wage-earners in an economic society whose only possession of significant material value is their labour-power. A member of such a class is a proletarian. Marxist theory considers the proletariat to be oppressed by ...

Roto

Roto, f. rota, is a term used to refer to Chilean people and in particular to the common Chilean. In Chile from the start of the 20th century it was applied with a negative classist connotation to poor city-dwellers. It is also used contemptuousl ...

Grant v Norway

Grant v Norway is a case on the Law of Carriage of Goods by Sea; but since 1992 it has no longer been good law. This was an action upon the case by the indorsees of a bill of lading, against the owners of a vessel, to recover the amount of advanc ...

Agency agreement

An agency agreement is a legal contract creating a fiduciary relationship whereby the first party agrees that the actions of a second party binds the principal to later agreements made by the agent as if the principal had himself personally made ...

Agency in English law

Agency in English law is the component of UK commercial law that deals with the application of agency law in the United Kingdom, and forms a core set of rules necessary for the smooth functioning of business. In 1986, the European Communities ena ...

Castillo v. Case Farms of Ohio

Castillo v. Case Farms of Ohio, 96 F. Supp. 2d 578, is a case involving poor working conditions for migratory workers. It established that a principal / agent relationship existed between Case Farms and Americas Tempcorps that allowed Case Farms ...

Dummy purchaser

A dummy purchaser is an agent who buys property on behalf of another, usually to conceal the true purpose of the acquisition. For instance, a shopping mall developer may hire a dummy buyer to purchase the needed vacant lots. Disclosing the princi ...

Faithless servant

The faithless servant doctrine is a doctrine under the laws of a number of states in the United States, and most notably New York State law, pursuant to which an employee who acts unfaithfully towards his or her employer must forfeit to his or he ...