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Pauper apprentice

Pauper apprentices in England and Wales were the children of paupers who were bound out by the local parish overseers and churchwardens. Some had to travel long distances to serve in the factories of the industrial revolution, but the majority se ...

Restavek

A restavek is a child in Haiti who is sent by their parents to work for a host household as a domestic servant because the parents lack the resources required to support the child. The term comes from the French language rester avec, "to stay wit ...

Ritual servitude

Ritual servitude is a practice in Ghana, Togo, and Benin where traditional religious shrines take human beings, usually young virgin girls, in payment for services, or in religious atonement for alleged misdeeds of a family member. In Ghana and i ...

Sadler report

This is an article about a 19th century British report. It should not be confused with the Sadler Commission, an investigation into Indian University education at the end of the First World War. The Sadler Report – more correctly the Report of th ...

Chimney sweeps' carcinoma

Chimney sweeps cancer, also called soot wart, is a squamous cell carcinoma of the skin of the scrotum. It has the distinction of being the first reported form of occupational cancer, and was initially identified by Percivall Pott in 1775. It was ...

The Sugar Babies

The Sugar Babies is a 2007 feature-length documentary film about exploitation in the sugar plantations of the Dominican Republic. The film, narrated by Edwidge Danticat, explores how the descendants of African slaves, brought over from Haiti, liv ...

Swabian children

The Swabian children were peasant children from poor families in the Alps of Austria and Switzerland who went to find work on farms in Upper Swabia and the Swabian Jura. Usually they were sent by their parents to become seasonal workers. They wer ...

Time-bound programmes for the eradication of the worst forms of child labour

The International Labour Organization Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention calls for time-bound programmes for the eradication of the worst forms of child labour. Countries ratifying this Convention must take immediate and effective measures to ...

Timurite movement

The Timurite movement or Timur movement was an altruistic youth volunteering movement in the Soviet Union promoted via mass youth organizations of Little Octobrists and Young Pioneers. The participants of the movement were called Timurites. The i ...

Trafficking of children

Trafficking of children is a form of human trafficking and is defined as the "recruitment, transportation, transfer, harboring, and/or receipt" kidnapping of a child for the purpose of slavery, forced labor and exploitation. This definition is su ...

United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Sale and Sexual Exploitation of Children

The Special Rapporteur on the Sale and Sexual Exploitation of Children works on behalf of the United Nations Human Rights Council to investigate the exploitation of children around the world and make recommendations to governments on how to end s ...

Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation

The Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation was adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999 as ILO Recommendation No 190. The provisions of this Recommendation supplement those of the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention and sho ...

Worst Forms of Hazards faced by Children at Work

The Worst Forms of Hazards faced by Children at Work is a provision in the Worst Forms of Child Labour Recommendation adopted by the International Labour Organization in 1999. It sets out the framework for examining and assessing, "work which, by ...

Employment

Employment is a relationship between two parties, usually based on a contract where work is paid for, where one party, which may be a corporation, for profit, not-for-profit organization, co-operative or other entity is the employer and the other ...

20% Project

The 20% Project is an initiative where employees are allocated twenty-percent of their paid work time to pursue personal projects. The objective of the program is to inspire innovation in participating employees and ultimately increase company po ...

Effect of taxes on employment

The effect of taxes on employment is a hotly debated economic and political issue. Some commentators claim that higher taxes lead to lower employment, by reducing the availability of capital to be invested in job-creating enterprises, or by reduc ...

Employability

Employability is related to work and the ability to be employed, such as: The ability to obtain new employment if required, i.e. to be independent in the labour market by being willing and able to manage their own employment transitions between a ...

Employment contract

An employment contract or contract of employment is a kind of contract used in labour law to attribute rights and responsibilities between parties to a bargain. The contract is between an "employee" and an "employer". It has arisen out of the old ...

Employment in Hong Kong

Hong Kong has an area of 1.106 square kilometres and a population of about 7.191.503 {July 2017 est.}. Despite its small size, Hong Kong is currently ranked the 15th largest exporting country in the world as of 2008. The total value of visible tr ...

Encore fellowships

Encore fellowships are temporary work placement programs designed to help former private sector mid-life careerists transition into encore career work in the social sector. Similar to how a person might apply for an internship with a business pri ...

Epilepsy and employment

Epilepsy can affect employment for a variety of reasons. Many employers are reluctant to hire a person they know has epilepsy, even if the seizures are controlled by medication. If the employee suffers a seizure while at work, they could harm the ...

European Social Fund

The European Social Fund is the European Unions main financial instrument for supporting employment in the member states of the European Union as well as promoting economic and social cohesion. ESF spending amounts to around 10% of the EUs total ...

Iron rice bowl

Iron rice bowl is a Chinese term used to refer to an occupation with guaranteed job security, as well as steady income and benefits. The Chinese term can be compared to the similar English concept of a "job for life". Traditionally, people consid ...

Job

A job, employment, work or occupation, is a persons role in society. More specifically, a job is an activity, often regular and often performed in exchange for payment. Many people have multiple jobs. A person can begin a job by becoming an emplo ...

Job rotation

Job rotation is a technique used by some employers to rotate their employees assigned jobs throughout their employment. Employers practice this technique for a number of reasons. It was designed to promote flexibility of employees and to keep emp ...

Job security

Job security is the probability that an individual will keep their job; a job with a high level of security is such that a person with the job would have a small chance of losing it. Basic economic theory holds that during periods of economic exp ...

Job sharing

Job sharing or work sharing is an employment arrangement where typically two people are retained on a part-time or reduced-time basis to perform a job normally fulfilled by one person working full-time. Since all positions are shared thus leads t ...

The Kingdom of Could Be You

The Kingdom of Could Be You was a spin-off of The Most Important Person. It explored occupations adults have as well as what their children could do when they get older. They ran as part of CBSs Captain Kangaroo from 1973 to 1976, and syndicated ...

Letter of recommendation

A letter of recommendation or recommendation letter, also known as a letter of reference, reference letter or simply reference, is a document in which the writer assesses the qualities, characteristics, and capabilities of the person being recomm ...

Nominative determinism

Nominative determinism is the hypothesis that people tend to gravitate towards areas of work that fit their names. The term was first used in the magazine New Scientist in 1994, after the magazines humorous Feedback column noted several studies c ...

Nursing shortage

Nursing shortage refers to a situation where the demand for nursing professionals, such as Registered Nurses, exceeds the supply - locally, nationally or globally. It can be measured, for instance, when the nurse-to-patient ratio, the nurse-to-po ...

Saudization

Saudization, officially known as Saudi nationalization scheme, or Nitaqat, is the newest policy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia implemented by its Ministry of Labor and Social Development, whereby Saudi companies and enterprises are required to fi ...

Self-employment

Self-employment is the state of working for oneself rather than an employer. Generally, tax authorities will view a person as self-employed if the person chooses to be recognized as such, or is generating income such that the person is required t ...

Underearners Anonymous

Underearners Anonymous is a twelve-step program for men and women who have come together to overcome what they call "underearning". Underearning is not just the inability to provide for oneself monetarily, but also inability to provide for ones n ...

Underemployment

For the television series, see Underemployed TV series Underemployment is the underuse of a worker because a job does not use the workers skills, is part-time, or leaves the worker idle. Examples include holding a part-time job despite desiring f ...

Vanpool

Vanpools are an element of the transit system that allow groups of people to share the ride similar to a carpool, but on a larger scale with concurrent savings in fuel and vehicle operating costs. Vanpools have a lower operating and capital cost ...

Versatilist

A Versatilist is someone who can be a specialist for a particular discipline, while at the same time be able to change to another role with the same ease. The term "versatilist" was recently used in an article from Gartner, where it states that " ...

Women Who Work (book)

Women Who Work is a 2017 book by Ivanka Trump. A self-help book intended to help women achieve self-actualization, it deals with work-life balance among other topics. It includes guest essays and several businesspeople, political figures, and sel ...

Work experience

Work experience called internship in North American English, is any experience that a person gains while working in a specific field or occupation, but the expression is widely used to mean a type of volunteer work that is commonly intended for y ...

Workgang

A Workgang is a group of individuals who are assigned, or engaged in, a common task. Examples include Prison Workgangs used for farming, construction, trash collection/waste management, fire fighting, or inmate emergency services. Such workgangs ...

Working age

Working age is the range of ages at which people are typically engaged in either paid or unpaid work. It typically sits between the ages of adolescence and retirement. In most countries there is a minimum age at which people can legally work.

Working parent

A working parent is a father or a mother who engages in a work life. Contrary to the popular belief that work equates to efforts aside from parents duties as a childcare provider and homemaker, it is thought that housewives or househusbands count ...

Labour movement

The labour movement or labor movement consists of two main wings, the trade union movement or labor union movement, also called trade unionism or labor unionism on the one hand, and the political labour movement on the other. The trade union move ...

Austro-Hungarian strike of January 1918

The 1918 Austro-Hungarian January Strike was a strike which spread across the Austro-Hungarian empire between January 3 and 25, 1918 demanding better living and working conditions and an end to the First World War. It is known as the "Jannerstrei ...

Autonomism

Autonomism, also known as autonomia operaia, autonomismo, autonomist Marxism, autonomous Marxism or worker authonomism, is a set of anti-authoritarian left-wing political and social movements and theories. As a theoretical system, it first emerge ...

Chartism

Chartism was a working-class male suffrage movement for political reform in Britain that existed from 1838 to 1857. It took its name from the Peoples Charter of 1838 and was a national protest movement, with particular strongholds of support in N ...

Economic League (United Kingdom)

The Economic League was an organisation in the United Kingdom dedicated to opposing what they saw as subversion and action against free enterprise. As part of this the organisation maintained a list of alleged leftwing troublemakers for decades, ...

Einheitsfrontlied

The Einheitsfrontlied is one of the most famous songs of the German labour movement. It was written by Bertolt Brecht and composed by Hanns Eisler. The best-known rendition was sung by Ernst Busch.

Esperanto workers movement

The Esperanto workers movement has the goal of taking practical advantage of the international planned language Esperanto for advancing the goals of the labour movement, especially the fight against unrestrained capitalism. It is not only a polit ...

Essential National Industries (Employment) Decree 2011

The Essential National Industries Decree 2011 is a controversial decree issued by the military-led interim government of the Republic of Fiji in September 2011. It was followed a few days later by the Essential National Industries and Designated ...