ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 831

Surface bargaining

In collective bargaining, surface bargaining is a strategy in which one of the parties "merely goes through the motions," with no intention of reaching an agreement. In this regard, it is a form of bad faith bargaining. Distinguishing surface bar ...

Syndicalism

Syndicalism is a radical current in the labor movement that was most active in the early 20th century. Its main idea is the establishment of local worker-based organizations and the advancement of the demands and rights of workers through strikes ...

Trade union

A trade union is an association of workers forming a legal unit or legal personhood, usually called a "bargaining unit", which acts as bargaining agent and legal representative for a unit of employees in all matters of law or right arising from o ...

Two-tier system

A two-tier system is a type of payroll system in which one group of workers receives lower wages and/or employee benefits than another. The two-tier system of wages is usually established for one of three reasons: The employer wishes to establish ...

Unfair labor practice

An unfair labor practice in US labor law refers to certain actions taken by employers or unions that violate the National Labor Relations Act of 1935 29 U.S.C. § 151–169 and other legislation. Such acts are investigated by the National Labor Rela ...

Unfair labor practice (Japan)

An unfair labor practice is discrimination by an employer in Japan against a worker who is associated with a union, or refusal by an employer to negotiate with a trade union, or interference in the activities of a union. Unfair labor practices ar ...

Union busting

Union busting is a range of activities undertaken to disrupt or prevent the formation of trade unions or their attempts to grow their membership in a workplace. Union busting tactics can refer to both legal and illegal activities, and can range a ...

Union density

The union density or union membership rate conveys the number of trade union members who are employees as a percentage of the total number of employees in a given industry or country. This is normally lower than collective agreement coverage rate ...

Union security agreement

A union security agreement is a contractual agreement, usually part of a union collective bargaining agreement, in which an employer and a trade or labor union agree on the extent to which the union may compel employees to join the union, and/or ...

Union shop

A union shop, also known as a post-entry closed shop, is a form of a union security clause. Under this, the employer agrees to either only hire labor union members or to require that any new employees who are not already union members become memb ...

Union Wallonne des Entreprises

About 1965, when economic decentralization was becoming more pronounced in Belgium, Walloon business leaders felt the need for more organisation. The pioneers of the UWE, were, to name a few, Jules Delruelle Prayon, George Halbart Magotteaux, Geo ...

United Students Against Sweatshops

United Students Against Sweatshops is a student organization founded in 1998 with chapters at over 250 colleges and universities in the United States and Canada. In April 2000, USAS founded the Worker Rights Consortium, an independent monitoring ...

Universal basic services

Universal Basic Services are a form of social security in which all citizens or residents of a community, region, or country receive unconditional access to a range of free, basic, public services, funded by taxes and provided by a government or ...

User revolt

A user revolt is a social conflict in which users of a website collectively and openly protest a website hosts or administrators instructions for using the website. Sometimes it happens that the website hosts can control a websites use in certain ...

Whipsaw strike

A whipsaw strike is a strike by a trade union against only one or a few employers in an industry or a multi-employer association at a time. The strike is often of a short duration, and usually recurs during the labor dispute or contract negotiati ...

Work Order Act

After the trade unions had been prohibited after May Day 1933, the Nazi controlled government was under pressure to ease working conditions and improve industrial relations. This was first attempted by establishing the position of a Trustee of La ...

Work-in

A work-in is a form of direct action under which workers whose jobs are under threat resolve to remain in their place of employment and to continue producing, without pay. Their intention is usually to show that their place of work still has long ...

Worker center

Worker centers are non-profit community-based mediating organizations that organize and provide support to communities of low wage workers who are not already members of a collective bargaining organization or have been legally excluded from cove ...

Workforce casualisation

Workforce casualisation is the process in which employment shifts from a preponderance of full-time and permanent positions to casual and contract positions. In Australia, 35% of all workers are casual or contract employees who are not paid for s ...

Working poor

The working poor are working people whose incomes fall below a given poverty line due to low-income jobs and low familial household income. These are people who spend at least 27 weeks in a year working or looking for employment, but remain under ...

Workweek and weekend

The workweek and weekend are the complementary parts of the week devoted to labor and rest, respectively. The legal working week, or workweek, is the part of the seven-day week devoted to labor. In most of the world, the workweek is from Monday t ...

Product certification

Product certification or product qualification is the process of certifying that a certain product has passed performance tests and quality assurance tests, and meets qualification criteria stipulated in contracts, regulations, or specifications. ...

The a2 Milk Company

The a2 Milk Company Limited is an ASX 200 public listed company that commercialises intellectual property relating to A1 protein-free milk that is sold under the a2 and a2 MILK brands, as well as the milk and related products like infant formula.

Acid-free paper

Acid-free paper is paper that if infused in water yields a neutral or basic pH. It can be made from any cellulose fiber as long as the active acid pulp is eliminated during processing. It is also lignin- and sulfur-free. Acid-free paper addresses ...

Association of Official Seed Certifying Agencies

The Association of Official Seed Certifying Agencies, formerly known as the International Crop Improvement Association, is a trade organization based in the United States. Founded in 1919, its function is to develop and promote certified varietie ...

Asthma and Allergy Friendly

Asthma & Allergy Friendly is a registered certification mark operated by Allergy Standards Limited in association with not-for-profit asthma and/or allergy organizations, labeling products which have been put through and have passed standardised ...

B Corporation (certification)

B Corporation certification is a private certification issued to for-profit companies by B Lab, a global nonprofit organization with offices in the United States, Europe, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and a partnership in Latin America with Sist ...

Biodiesel standard

Biodiesel has a number of standards for its quality. The European standard for biodiesel is EN 14214, which is translated into the respective national standards for each country that forms the CEN European Committee for Standardization area e.g., ...

Bonsucro

Bonsucro is an international not for-profit, multistakeholder governance group established in 2008 to promote sustainable sugar cane. Its stated aim is to reduce the environmental and social impacts of sugarcane production while recognising the n ...

California Certified Organic Farmers

California Certified Organic Farmers is a United States Department of Agriculture -accredited organic certifying agency and trade association, located in Santa Cruz, California. Formed in 1973, CCOF was the first organic certification entity in t ...

Cativa Natureza

CativaNatureza, a company from Parana, Brazil, is pointed out as a reference in the Brazilian Market of traceable cosmetics made of organic raw materials by the international press specialized in the area Besides being recognized by experts in th ...

Certificate of Conformity (Russia)

In Russia, a Certificate of Conformity, also called a Quality Certificate, Safety Certificate or Customs Certificate, affirms that a product or service conforms to legal safety and quality requirements. There are two types of certificate: one dem ...

Certification listing

A certification listing is a document used to guide installations of certified products, against which a field installation is compared to make sure that it complies with a regulation. Typically, products or items are required to be installed or ...

Clerk of works

The Clerk of Works, often abbreviated CoW, is employed by an architect or a client on a construction site. The role is primarily to represent the interests of the client in regard to ensuring that the quality of both materials and workmanship are ...

Dekra

DEKRA is a European vehicle inspection company founded in Berlin, Germany in 1925 as Deutscher Kraftfahrzeug-Uberwachungs-Verein. With approximately 45.000 employees and revenues of roughly €3.3 billion, DEKRA is the largest inspection company in ...

Demeter International

Demeter International is the largest certification organization for biodynamic agriculture, and is one of three predominant organic certifiers. Its name is a reference to Demeter, the Greek goddess of grain and fertility. Demeter Biodynamic Certi ...

DIN EN ISO 9712

DIN EN ISO 9712:2012 is a certification issued by the German institute for standardization. It certifies personnel working in Non-destructive testing. This standard evaluates and documents the competence of personnel whose tasks require knowledge ...

Energy Star

Energy Star is a program run by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and U.S. Department of Energy that promotes energy efficiency. The program provides information on the energy consumption of products and devices using different standardize ...

EnergyGuide

The EnergyGuide provides consumers in the United States information about the energy consumption, efficiency, and operating costs of appliances and consumer products. Clothes washers, dishwashers, refrigerators, freezers, televisions, water heate ...

Fair Trade USA

Fair Trade USA, formerly TransFair USA ", is a 501 non-profit organization, that sets standards, certifies, and labels products that promote sustainable livelihoods for farmers and workers and protect the environment.

Farm assurance

Farm assurance is product certification for agricultural products that emphasises the principles of quality assurance. The emphasis on quality assurance means that, in addition to product inspection, farm assurance schemes may include standards a ...

Farm assurance in Scotland

The term farm assurance was first used in Scotland in the late 1980s to describe new certification schemes established by farmers, meat processors, consumers and supporting agencies, in response to emerging consumer concerns about food production ...

Guarantee of origin

A Guarantee of Origin is a tracking instrument defined in article 15 of the European Directive 2009/28/EC. A GO labels electricity from renewable sources to provide information to electricity customers on the source of their energy. Guarantees of ...

Guobiao standards

Guobiao standards or GB standards are the Chinese national standards issued by the Standardization Administration of China, the Chinese National Committee of the ISO and IEC. GB stands for Guobiao, Chinese for national standard. Mandatory standar ...

Hardware certification

Hardware certification is the process through which computer hardware is tested to ensure it is compatible with specific software packages, and operates as intended in critical situations. With ever dropping prices of hardware devices, the market ...

Kauri-butanol value

The Kauri-butanol value is an international, standardized measure of solvent power for a hydrocarbon solvent, and is governed by an ASTM standardized test, ASTM D1133. The result of this test is a scaleless index, usually referred to as the "Kb v ...

Korean Standards Association

KSA, formerly known as Korean Standards Association, is a public organization under South Koreas Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy. KSA was established in 1962 pursuant to Article 32 of the Industrial Standardization Act.

Listing and approval use and compliance

Listing and approval use and compliance is the activity of adhering to specific conformance testing requirements to establish minimum performance for safety-related products and materials. The conformance could be for an active certification list ...

Minimum energy performance standard

A minimum energy performance standard is a specification, containing a number of performance requirements for an energy-using device, that effectively limits the maximum amount of energy that may be consumed by a product in performing a specified ...

Motor vehicle type approval

Motor vehicle type approval is the method by which motor vehicles, vehicle trailers and systems, components and separate technical units intended for such vehicles achieve Type approval in Europe.