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Solanum huaylasense

It is a sprawling perennial herb, woody at the base, the herb being up to 1 metre 3.3 ft or more in diameter and up to 1m tall. Its stem diameter ranges between 7 and 10 millimetres 0.28 and 0.39 in at the base, not hollow in age, green, minutely ...

Lycopersicon

Lycopersicon was a genus in the flowering plant family Solanaceae. It contained about 13 species in the tomato group of nightshades. First removed from the genus Solanum by Philip Miller in 1754, its removal leaves the latter genus paraphyletic, ...

Solanum macrocarpon

Solanum macrocarpon otherwise known as the African eggplant or Vietnamese eggplant is a plant of the family Solanaceae. S. macrocarpon is a tropical perennial plant that is closely related to the eggplant. S. macrocarpon originated from West Afri ...

Solanum nelsonii

Solanum nelsonii, common names pōpolo and Nelsons horsenettle, is a partially woody sprawling shrub-like perennial plant in the family Solanaceae, part of the Solanum or nightshade genus. This poisonous plant is endemic to the Pacific Islands. It ...

Solanum opacum

Solanum opacum, the green berry nightshade, or morelle verte is a sprawling annual native to eastern Australia. It is part of the black nightshade group of Solanum species.

Solanum physalifolium

Solanum physalifolium, known as hoe nightshade, Argentine nightshade, green nightshade and hairy nightshade, is a species in the family Solanaceae. Native to Argentina, Bolivia and Chile, it is widely naturalized in Australia, New Zealand, Europe ...

Solanum prinophyllum

Solanum prinophyllum, known as the forest nightshade is a small plant native to the east coast of Australia. It is a short lived herb, annual or perennial. Forest nightshade grows to 50 cm in height. Its leaves are 5 to 8 cm long and 3-5 cm wide. ...

Solanum pubescens

Solanum pubescens is a wild shrub found in the foot hill areas of southern India. It is very closely related to the Turkey berry. This shrub does not have spines, leaves are smaller in size covered with dense sticky hairs. Flowers are larger, pur ...

Solanum quadriloculatum

Solanum quadriloculatum is known under the common names of "bush tomato" or "wild tomato". It is a small fruiting shrub in the family Solanaceae. It was and occasionally still is included in S. ellipticum by some authors, but generally these two ...

Solanum robustum

Solanum robustum, the shrubby nightshade, is a thorny perennial shrub native to northeastern South America of the genus Solanum and is therefore related to the potato and tomato plants. A medium shrub, the plant may grow 4 to 8 feet with velvety ...

Solanum sarrachoides

Solanum sarrachoides is a species of nightshade known as the hairy nightshade or leafy-fruited nightshade. In California, according to the Jepson Manual Solanum key, it is differentiated by its calyx that are enlarged during fruit, but smaller wh ...

Solanum scabrum

Solanum scabrum, also known as garden huckleberry, is an annual or perennial. The origin of the species is uncertain, although Linnaeus attributed it to Africa, but it also occurs in North America, and is naturalized in many countries. In Africa ...

Solanum sodiroi

Solanum sodiroi is a species of plant in the family Solanaceae. It is possibly endemic to Ecuador. S. carchiense as described by Corell, is the wrong name, this plant that is sometimes still seen. In General, the following synonyms are of this mi ...

Solanum tepuiense

Solanum tepuiense is a plant species native to Venezuela. It is known from one collection, from a low-elevation sandstone flat-topped mountain named Sororopan-Tepui, near the Gran Sabana Region in the State of Bolivar in the eastern part of the c ...

Solanum ternatum

Solanum ternatum is a species of plant in the family Solanaceae. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forests. "Solanum diffusum" redirects here. This name has also been applied to other species, see text. S. ternifolium a ...

Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil

Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil Altschul is a mimosa-like timber tree native to Caatinga and Cerrado vegetation in Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay and Peru. It has also been introduced to Mauritius. It grows up to 25 m tall, with a trunk ...

Maytenus krukovii

Maytenus krukovii is a tree species native to the Amazon rainforest, it grows in Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, and Peru. With a maximum recorded height of about 30 metres, and leaves that span up to 30 centimetres wide, this large tree contributes ...

Cytochrome P450 reductase

Cytochrome P450 reductase is a membrane-bound enzyme required for electron transfer from NADPH to cytochrome P450 in the endoplasmic reticulum of the eukaryotic cell.

P450-containing systems

Any enzyme system that includes cytochrome P450 protein or domain can be called a P450-containing system. P450 enzymes usually act as terminal oxidase in multicomponent electron-transfer chains, called P450-containing monooxygenase systems, altho ...

CYP1A2

Cytochrome P450 1A2, a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. In humans, the CYP1A2 enzyme is encoded by the CYP1A2 gene.

Cytochrome P450, family 1, member A1

Cytochrome P450, family 1, subfamily A, polypeptide 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP1A1 gene. The protein is a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes.

CYP2A6

Cytochrome P450 2A6 is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. CYP2A6 is the primary enzyme responsible for the oxidation of nicotine and cotinine. It is also ...

CYP2A7

CYP2A7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CYP2A7 gene. This gene encodes a member of cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes. Cytochrome P450 proteins are monooxygenases which catalyze many reactions involved in drug metabolism and synt ...

CYP2B6

Cytochrome P450 2B6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2B6 gene. CYP2B6 is a member of the Cytochrome P450 group of enzymes. Along with CYP2A6, it is involved with metabolizing nicotine, along with many other substances.

CYP2C8

Cytochrome P 450 2C8, a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. Cytochrome P 450 2C8 also possesses epoxygenase activity, i.e. it metabolizes long-chain polyunsaturate ...

CYP2C9

CYP2C9 is an important cytochrome P450 enzyme with a major role in the oxidation of both xenobiotic and endogenous compounds. CYP2C9 makes up about 18% of the cytochrome P450 protein in liver microsomes data only for antifungal. Some 100 therapeu ...

CYP2C9*3

Cytochrome P450 2C9, a member of the CYP2C enzyme subfamily, ranks amongst the most important drug metabolizing enzymes in humans. Human CYP2C9 has been shown on exhibit genetic polymorphism. In addition to the wild-type protein CYP2C9*1 at least ...

CYP2C19

Cytochrome P450 2C19 is an enzyme. This protein, a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics, including many proton pump inhibitors and antiepileptics. In humans, the CYP2C19 protein ...

CYP2E1

Cytochrome P450 2E1 is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. This class of enzymes is divided up into a number of subcategories, including CYP1, CYP2, and CY ...

CYP3A4

Cytochrome P450 3A4 is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine. It oxidizes small foreign organic molecules, such as toxins or drugs, so that they can be removed from the body. Although many drugs are detox ...

CYP3A7

CYP3A7 is an enzyme belonging to the cytochrome P450 family. It is 503 amino acids in size and shares 87% of its sequence with CYP3A4. It carries out a similar role in fetuses that CYP3A4 serves in adults. The gene location is 7q22.1. Group СУР3А ...

CYP6G1

Cyp6g1 or DDT-R is a gene involved in the insecticide DDT-resistant in Drosophila melanogaster, belongs to the cytochrome P450 family, location in chromosome 2R.

Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme

Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme is commonly referred to as P450scc, where "scc" is an acronym for side-chain cleavage. P450scc is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. This is the first reaction i ...

CYP17A1

Cytochrome P450 17A1, also called steroid 17α-monooxygenase, 17α-hydroxylase, 17.20-lyase, or 17.20-desmolase, is an enzyme of the hydroxylase type that in humans is encoded by the CYP17A1 gene on chromosome 10. It is ubiquitously expressed in ma ...

Aromatase

Aromatase, also called estrogen synthetase or estrogen synthase, is an enzyme responsible for a key step in the biosynthesis of estrogens. It is CYP19A1, a member of the cytochrome P450 superfamily, which are monooxygenases that catalyze many rea ...

Daf-9

The Daf-9 gene encodes a cytochrome p450 enzyme catalysis the generation of dafachronic acid in the worm Caenorhabditis elegans, with the CYP Symbol CYP22A1. After generation, dafachronic acid will binding its nuclear receptor Daf-12 and has been ...

CYP27A1

CYP27A1 is a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 oxidase, and is commonly known as sterol 27-hydroxylase. This enzyme is located in many different tissues where it is found within the mitochondria. It is most prominently involved in the biosynthesis ...

Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase

Cholesterol 24-hydroxylase, also commonly known as cholesterol 24S-hydroxylase, cholesterol 24-monooxygenase, CYP46, or CYP46A1, is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of cholesterol to 24S-hydroxycholesterol. It is responsible for the majori ...

Lanosterol 14 alpha-demethylase

Lanosterol 14α-demethylase is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that is involved in the conversion of lanosterol to 4.4-dimethylcholesta-8.14.24-trien-3β-ol. The cytochrome P450 isoenzymes are a conserved group of proteins that serve as key players in the ...

Cmax (pharmacology)

C max is the maximum serum concentration that a drug achieves in a specified compartment or test area of the body after the drug has been administrated and before the administration of a second dose. It is a standard measurement in pharmacokinetics.

Allyl alcohol

Allyl alcohol is an organic compound with the structural formula CH 2 =CHCH 2 OH. Like many alcohols, it is a water-soluble, colourless liquid. It is more toxic than typical small alcohols. Allyl alcohol is used as a raw material for the producti ...

Amanita

The genus Amanita contains about 600 species of agarics, including some of the most toxic known mushrooms found worldwide, as well as some well-regarded edible species. This genus is responsible for approximately 95% of the fatalities resulting f ...

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are members of a drug class that reduces pain, decreases fever, prevents blood clots, and in higher doses, decreases inflammation. Side effects depend on the specific drug but largely include an increased risk ...

Immunotoxin

An immunotoxin is an artificial protein consisting of a targeting portion linked to a toxin. When the protein binds to that cell, it is taken in through endocytosis, and the toxin kills the cell. They are used for the treatment of some kinds of c ...

Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds

Dioxins and dioxin-like compounds are a group of chemical compounds that are persistent environmental pollutants. Some of them are highly toxic, but the toxicity among them varies 30.000-fold. They are grouped together, because their mechanism of ...

Heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin

1.2.3.4.6.7.8-Heptachlorodibenzo- para -dioxin is a polychlorinated derivative of dibenzo-p-dioxin and can therefore be categorized as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin, a subclass of dioxins which includes 75 congeners. HpCDD is the dibenzo-p-dio ...

Β-lactam antibiotic

β-lactam antibiotics are the antibiotic agents that contain a beta-lactam ring in their molecular structure. This includes penicillin derivatives, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems and carbacephems. Most β-lactam antibiotics work by inhibi ...

Radiocontrast agent

Radiocontrast agents are substances used to enhance the visibility of internal structures in X-ray-based imaging techniques such as computed tomography, projectional radiography, and fluoroscopy. Radiocontrast agents are typically iodine, or more ...

1.4-Dioxin

1.4-Dioxin is a heterocyclic, organic, non-aromatic compound with the chemical formula C 4 H 4 O 2. There is an isomeric form of 1.4-dioxin, 1.2-dioxin. 1.2-Dioxin is very unstable due to its peroxide-like characteristics. Term" dioxin” is most c ...

AB5 toxin

The AB 5 toxins are six-component protein complexes secreted by certain pathogenic bacteria known to cause human diseases such as cholera, dysentery, and hemolytic–uremic syndrome. One component is known as the A subunit, and the remaining five c ...