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Early childhood caries

Early childhood caries, formerly known as nursing bottle caries, baby bottle tooth decay, night bottle mouth and night bottle caries, is a disease that affects teeth in children aged between birth and 71 months. ECC is characterized by the presen ...

Phoenix abscess

A phoenix abscess is an acute exacerbation of a chronic periapical lesion. It is a dental abscess that can occur immediately following root canal treatment. Another cause is due to untreated necrotic pulp. It is also the result of inadequate debr ...

Abfraction

Abfraction is a theoretical concept explaining a loss of tooth structure not caused by tooth decay. It is suggested that these lesions are caused by forces placed on the teeth during biting, eating, chewing and grinding, the enamel, especially at ...

Acid erosion

Acid erosion is a type of tooth wear. It is defined as the irreversible loss of tooth structure due to chemical dissolution by acids not of bacterial origin. Dental erosion is the most common chronic disease of children ages 5–17, although it is ...

Attrition (dental)

Dental attrition is a type of tooth wear caused by tooth-to-tooth contact, resulting in loss of tooth tissue, usually starting at the incisal or occlusal surfaces. Tooth wear is a physiological process and is commonly seen as a normal part of agi ...

Overeruption

In dentistry, overeruption is the physiological movement of a tooth lacking an opposing partner in the dental occlusion. Because of the lack of opposing force and the natural eruptive potential of the tooth there is a tendency for the tooth to er ...

Pulp stone

Pulp stones are nodular, calcified masses appearing in either or both the coronal and root portion of the pulp organ in teeth. Pulp stones are not painful unless they impinge on nerves. They are classified into: A) On the basis of structure 1) Tr ...

Tooth loss

Tooth loss is a process in which one or more teeth come loose and fall out. Tooth loss is normal for deciduous teeth, when they are replaced by a persons adult teeth. Otherwise, losing teeth is undesirable and is the result of injury or disease, ...

Dens evaginatus

Dens evaginatus is a rare odontogenic developmental anomaly that is found in teeth where the outer surface appears to form an extra bump or cusp. Premolars are more likely to be affected than any other tooth. This can occur unilaterally or bilate ...

Dens invaginatus

Dens invaginatus, also known as tooth within a tooth, is a rare dental malformation found in teeth where there is an infolding of enamel into dentine. The prevalence of condition is 0.3 - 10%, affecting more males than females. The condition is p ...

Dentin dysplasia

Dentin dysplasia is a rare genetic developmental disorder dentine production of the teeth, commonly exhibiting an autosomal dominant inheritance that causes malformation of the root. It affects both primary and permanent dentitions in approximate ...

Hypodontia

Hypodontia is defined as the developmental absence of one or more teeth which can affect both the primary and permanent dentition. It is the most common developmental dental anomaly and can be challenging to manage clinically. The term hypodontia ...

Microdontia

Microdontia is a condition in which one or more teeth appear smaller than normal. In the generalized form, all teeth are involved. In the localized form, only a few teeth are involved. The most common teeth affected are the upper lateral incisors ...

Talon cusp

Talon Cusp is a rare dental anomaly. Generally a person with this develops "cusp-like" projections located on the inside surface of the affected tooth. Talon cusp is an extra cusp on an anterior tooth. Although talon cusp may not appear serious, ...

Tooth gemination

Tooth gemination is a dental phenomenon that appears to be two teeth developed from one. There is one main crown with a cleft in it that, within the incisal third of the crown, looks like two teeth, though it is not two teeth. The number of the t ...

Tenatoprazole

Tenatoprazole is a proton pump inhibitor drug candidate that was undergoing clinical testing as a potential treatment for reflux oesophagitis and peptic ulcer as far back as 2003. The compound was invented by Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma and was lice ...

Dihydrotetrabenazine

Dihydrotetrabenazine or DTBZ is an organic compound with the chemical formula C 19 H 29 NO 3. It is a close analog of tetrabenazine. DTBZ and its derivatives, when labeled with positron emitting isotopes such as carbon-11 and fluorine-18, are use ...

Monoamine releasing agent

A monoamine releasing agent, or simply monoamine releaser, is a drug that induces the release of a monoamine neurotransmitter from the presynaptic neuron into the synapse, leading to an increase in the extracellular concentrations of the neurotra ...

Norepinephrine releasing agent

A norepinephrine releasing agent, also known as an adrenergic releasing agent, is a catecholaminergic type of drug which induces the release of norepinephrine and epinephrine from the pre-synaptic neuron into the synapse. This in turn leads to in ...

Serotonin releasing agent

A serotonin releasing agent is a type of drug that induces the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft. A selective serotonin releasing agent is an SRA with less significant or no efficacy in producing neurotransmitter efflux at oth ...

Epimerox

Epimerox is an experimental broad-spectrum antibiotic compound being developed by scientists at the Rockefeller University and Astex Pharmaceuticals. It is a small molecule inhibitor compound that blocks the activity of the enzyme UDP- N -acetylg ...

Adenosine A2A receptor antagonist

Adenosine 2A receptor antagonists are a class of drugs that blocks adenosine at the adenosine 2A receptor. Notable adenosine 2A receptor antagonists include caffeine, theophylline and istradefylline.

Alpha blocker

Alpha-blockers, also known as α-blockers or α-adrenoreceptor antagonists, are a class of pharmacological agents that act as antagonists on α-adrenergic receptors. Historically, alpha-blockers have been used as a tool for pharmacological research ...

Idazoxan

Idazoxan is a drug which is used in scientific research. It acts as both a selective α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, and an antagonist for the imidazoline receptor. Idazoxan has been under investigation as an antidepressant, but it did not rea ...

Imiloxan

Imiloxan is a drug which is used in scientific research. It acts as a selective antagonist for the α 2B adrenergic receptor, and has been useful for distinguishing the actions of the different α 2 adrenergic subtypes.

Indoramin

Indoramin is a piperidine antiadrenergic agent. This is an alpha 1-adrenoceptor selective antagonist direct-acting myocardial depression, so it does not cause reflex tachycardia. It is also used in benign prostatic hyperplasia BPH. It is usually ...

Oxetorone

Oxetorone, as oxetorone fumarate, is a serotonin antagonist, antihistamine, and alpha blocker used as an antimigraine drug. Association with hyperprolactinemia has been described.

SB-269970

SB-269970 is a drug and research chemical developed by GlaxoSmithKline used in scientific studies. It is believed to act as a selective 5-HT 7 receptor antagonist. A subsequent study in guinea pig at 10 uM showed that it also blocks the α 2 -adre ...

Antihistamine

Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies. Typically people take antihistamines as an inexpensive, generic, over-the-counter drug that can provide relief from nasal congestion, sneezing, or hives caused by pollen, ...

Beta-2 adrenergic antagonist

A Beta-2 adrenergic antagonist is an adrenergic antagonist which blocks the beta-2 adrenergic receptors of cells, with either high specificity like Butaxamine and ICI-118.551, or non-specifically like the non-selective betablocker Propranolol.

Beta-3 adrenergic antagonist

A Beta-3 adrenergic antagonist is an adrenergic antagonist which blocks the Beta-3 adrenergic receptors of cells, with either high specificity like L-748.328, L-748.337 and SR 59.230A or non-specifically like the non-selective betablocker Carvedilol.

Bufuralol

Bufuralol is a potent beta-adrenoceptor antagonist with partial agonist activity. It is metabolized by CYP2D6. Most beta-blocker aryloxypropanolamine basis. In this rare exception, benzofuran oxygen is part of the ring, and not derived from epich ...

Butaxamine

Butaxamine is a β 2 -selective beta blocker. Its primary use is in experimental situations in which blockade of β 2 receptors is necessary to determine the activity of the drug. It has no clinical use. An alternative name is α--2.5-dimethoxybenzy ...

Medroxalol

For the first step, salicylamide 1 is the subject of a Friedel-Crafts acetylation and then the aromatic methylketone is halogenated. in the usual manner. The bromide in 2 is then displaced by the nitrogen in N -benzyl-1-3.4-methylenedioxyphenyl-3 ...

Moprolol

Moprolol is a beta-adrenergic antagonist, or beta blocker. Typically moprolol is prescribed to treat hypertension, high blood pressure, anxiety, and glaucoma. Moprolol was first introduced by SIMS, or S.p.A Societa Italiana Medicinali e Sintetici ...

Pronethalol

Pronethalol was an early non-selective beta blocker clinical candidate. It was never used clinically due to carcinogenicity in mice, which was thought to result from formation of a carcinogenic naphthalene epoxide metabolite.

Dopamine agonist

A dopamine receptor agonist is a compound that activates dopamine receptors. There are two families of dopamine receptors, D 2 -like and D 1 -like, and they are all G protein-coupled receptors. D 1 - and D 5 -receptors belong to the D 1 -like fam ...

Ciladopa

Ciladopa is a dopamine agonist with a similar chemical structure to dopamine. It was under investigation as an antiparkinsonian agent but was discontinued due to concerns of tumorogenesis in rodents.

Dopexamine

Dopexamine is a synthetic analogue of dopamine that is administered intravenously in hospitals to reduce exacerbations of heart failure and to treat heart failure following cardiac surgery. It is not used often, as more established drugs like epi ...

Piribedil

Piribedil is an antiparkinsonian agent and piperazine derivative which acts as a D 2 and D 3 receptor agonist. It also has α 2 -adrenergic antagonist properties.

RDS-127

RDS-127 is a drug which is used in scientific research. It acts as a D 2 -like receptor agonist and also has some serotonin and adrenergic agonist effects, as well as some anticholinergic action, and produces both anorectic and pro-sexual effects ...

Dopamine antagonist

A dopamine antagonist is a type of drug which blocks dopamine receptors by receptor antagonism. Most antipsychotics are dopamine antagonists, and as such they have found use in treating schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and stimulant psychosis. Se ...

2-Furanone

2-Furanone is a heterocyclic organic compound. It is also known as γ-crotonolactone, as it is formally the lactone derived from γ-hydroxyisocrotonic acid. The chemical is colloquially called "butenolide", and is the parent structure for the buten ...

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A and monoamine oxidase B. They are best known as powerful anti-depressants, as well as effective therapeutic ...

Harmane

Harmane is a potent reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A RIMA and acts as a moderate affinity inverse agonist at the benzodiazepine site of the GABA-A receptor. Harmane has been suggested as a potential candidate or component thereof for t ...

Monoamine reuptake inhibitor

A monoamine reuptake inhibitor is a drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor of one or more of the three major monoamine neurotransmitters serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine by blocking the action of one or more of the respective monoamine tra ...

PCP site 2

PCP site 2 is a binding site that was identified as a high-affinity target for phencyclidine, an anesthetic and dissociative hallucinogen that acts primarily as an NMDA receptor antagonist. The site is distinct from the PCP binding site on the NM ...

Desmethylmoramide

Desmethylmoramide is an opioid analgesic related to dextromoramide -isomer of moramide) that was synthesized and characterized in the late 1950s but was never marketed.

Isocodeine

Isocodeine is an opioid research chemical related to codeine. It is an epimer of codeine that can be prepared from it by a Mitsunobu reaction. Dozens isocodeine derivatives and analogues and related compound isomorphine was produced.

Isomethadol

Isomethadol is an opioid analgesic with a number of stereoisomers produced by the reduction of d,l-isomethadone with lithium aluminium hydride. It was first produced in the United States in 1948. The salt used in research is the hydrochloride.