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Typhus

Typhus, also known as typhus fever, is a group of infectious diseases that include epidemic typhus, scrub typhus, and murine typhus. Common symptoms include fever, headache, and a rash. Typically these begin one to two weeks after exposure. Disea ...

Bordetella

Bordetella is a genus of small, Gram-negative coccobacilli of the phylum Proteobacteria. Bordetella species, with the exception of B. petrii, are obligate aerobes, as well as highly fastidious, or difficult to culture. All species can infect huma ...

Roman Plague of 590

The Roman Plague of 590 was a local plague that affected the city of Rome in the year 590. It followed from the great plague of Justinian that may have killed more than 100 million Europeans that began in the 540s and spread to other parts of the ...

Sylvatic plague

Sylvatic plague is an infectious bacterial disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis that primarily affects rodents such as prairie dogs. It is the same bacterium that causes bubonic and pneumonic plague in humans. Sylvatic, or sylvan, mean ...

Group A streptococcal infection

A group A streptococcal infection is an infection with group A streptococcus. Streptococcus pyogenes comprises the vast majority of the Lancefield group A streptococci, and is often used as a synonym for GAS. However, S. dysgalactiae can also be ...

Streptococcal pharyngitis

Streptococcal pharyngitis, also known as strep throat, is an infection of the back of the throat including the tonsils caused by group A streptococcus. Common symptoms include fever, sore throat, red tonsils, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck. ...

CFP-10

CFP-10 also known as ESAT-6-like protein esxB or secreted antigenic protein MTSA-10 or 10 kDa culture filtrate antigen CFP-10 is a protein that is encoded by the esxB gene. CFP-10 is a 10 KDA secreted antigen of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It for ...

Cold abscess

Cold abscess refers to an abscess that lacks the intense inflammation usually associated with infection. This may be associated with infections due to bacteria like tuberculosis and fungi like blastomycosis that do not tend to stimulate acute inf ...

Eloesser flap

The Eloesser flap is a surgical procedure developed by Dr. Leo Eloesser in 1935 at the San Francisco General Hospital. It was originally intended to aid with drainage of tuberculous empyemas, since at the time there were no effective medications ...

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis

Extrapulmonary tuberculosis is tuberculosis within a location in the body other than the lungs. This occurs in 15–20% of active cases, causing other kinds of TB. These are collectively denoted as "extrapulmonary tuberculosis". Extrapulmonary TB o ...

H37Rv

Mycobacterium tuberculosis strain H37Rv is the most studied strain of tuberculosis in research laboratories. It was first isolated by Dr. Edward R. Baldwin in 1905. The strain came from a 19 year old patient with chronic pulmonary tuberculosis at ...

Interferon gamma release assay

Interferon-γ release assays are medical tests used in the diagnosis of some infectious diseases, especially tuberculosis. Interferon-γ release assays rely on the fact that T-lymphocytes will release IFN-γ when exposed to specific antigens. These ...

Lupus vulgaris

Lupus vulgaris are painful cutaneous tuberculosis skin lesions with nodular appearance, most often on the face around the nose, eyelids, lips, cheeks, ears and neck. It is the most common Mycobacterium tuberculosis skin infection. The lesions may ...

Miliary tuberculosis

Miliary tuberculosis is a form of tuberculosis that is characterized by a wide dissemination into the human body and by the tiny size of the lesions. Its name comes from a distinctive pattern seen on a chest radiograph of many tiny spots distribu ...

Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex is a genetically related group of Mycobacterium species that can cause tuberculosis in humans or other animals. It includes: Mycobacterium caprae. (На Mycobacterium caprae) Mycobacterium orygis. (Микобактери ...

Proteasome accessory factor E

Proteasome accessory factor E is an ATP-independent proteasome activator of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that forms 12-fold symmetric rings and interacts with the 20S proteasome core particle through a conserved carboxyl-terminal motif to activate ...

QuantiFERON

Interferon-gamma release assays are diagnostic tools for latent tuberculosis infection. They are surrogate markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection and indicate a cellular immune response to M. tuberculosis. IGRAs cannot distinguish betwee ...

Risk factors for tuberculosis

There are a number risk factors for tuberculosis infection, worldwide the most important of these is HIV. Co-infection with HIV is a particular problem in Sub-Saharan Africa, due to the high incidence of HIV in these countries. Smoking more than ...

Sunshine Way

Sunshine Way is the name of a crescent-shaped street in Mitcham, England, built in 1936 for families from overcrowded areas of inner London, and including specially-designed houses to suit the needs of tuberculosis patients. The houses date from ...

T-SPOT.TB

T-SPOT. TB is a type of ELISpot Assay used for tuberculosis diagnosis, which belongs to the group of interferon gamma release assays. The test is manufactured by Oxford Immunotec in the UK. It is available in most European countries, the United S ...

Tuberculosis radiology

Radiology is used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis. Abnormalities on chest radiographs may be suggestive of, but are never diagnostic of TB, but can be used to rule out pulmonary TB.

Mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis

The disease mycobacterial cervical lymphadenitis, also known as scrofula and historically as kings evil, involves a lymphadenitis of the cervical lymph nodes associated with tuberculosis as well as nontuberculous mycobacteria.

Central nervous system viral disease

The Central Nervous System controls most of the functions of the body and mind. It comprises the brain, spinal cord and the nerve fibers that branch off to all parts of the body. The Central Nervous System viral diseases are caused by viruses tha ...

Prevention of viral hemorrhagic fever

Prevention of viral hemorrhagic fever is similar for the different viruses. There are a number of different viral hemorrhagic fevers including Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, Rift valley fever, Marburg virus disease, Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic ...

Erythema multiforme

Erythema multiforme is a skin condition of unknown cause, it is a type of erythema possibly mediated by deposition of immune complexes in the superficial microvasculature of the skin and oral mucous membrane that usually follows an infection or d ...

Herpes esophagitis

Herpes esophagitis is a viral infection of the esophagus caused by Herpes simplex virus. Although the disease occurs most often in immunocompromised patients, including after chemotherapy, immunosuppressive therapy with organ transplants and in A ...

Kopliks spots

Kopliks spots are a prodromic viral enanthem of measles manifesting two to three days before the measles rash itself. They are characterized as clustered, white lesions on the buccal mucosa and are pathognomonic for measles. The textbook descript ...

Cancricepon elegans

Cancricepon elegans is a species of isopods that parasitises the crab Pilumnus hirtellus. It was originally described from French waters and has since been found off the coast of Great Britain.

Hamiltosporidium

Hamiltosporidium is a genus of Microsporidia, which are intracellular and unicellular parasites. The genus, proposed by Haag et al. in 2010, contains two species, Hamiltosporidium tvaerminnensis, and Hamiltosporidium magnivora. Both species infec ...

Hemioniscus balani

Hemioniscus balani, a species of isopod crustacean, is a widespread parasitic castrator of barnacle in the northern Atlantic Ocean. Its range extends from Norway to the Atlantic coast of France, and as far west as Massachusetts. It is also common ...

Heterosaccus

Heterosaccus is a genus of barnacles in superorder Rhizocephala. Like other taxa in this superorder, they parasitize crabs. Geoffroy Smith circumscribed the genus in 1906, he initially only included H. hians. Smith circumscribed a genus distinct ...

Nicothoe tumulosa

Nicothoe tumulosa is a species of copepod parasitic on the gills of the glypheoid lobster Neoglyphea inopinata. It was described as a new species in 1976 by Roger F. Cressey. It can be differentiated from related species by the setal formula, and ...

Polyascus

Polyascus is a genus of barnacles in superorder Rhizocephala. It was circumscribed in 2003 by Henrik Glenner, Jorgen Lutzen, and Tohru Takahashi. They included three species, all transferred from Sacculina. The generic name polyascus refers to th ...

Symbion

Symbion is the name of a genus of commensal aquatic animals, less than 0.5 mm wide, found living attached to the mouthparts of cold-water lobsters. They have sac-like bodies, and three distinctly different forms in different parts of their two-st ...

Thompsonia (barnacle)

Thompsonia is a genus of barnacles which has evolved into an endoparasite of other crustaceans, including crabs and snapping shrimp. It spreads through the hosts body as a network of threads, and produces many egg capsules which emerge through jo ...

Atrioventricular septal defect

Atrioventricular septal defect or atrioventricular canal defect, also known as common atrioventricular canal or endocardial cushion defect ", is characterized by a deficiency of the atrioventricular septum of the heart. It is caused by an abnorma ...

Bicuspid aortic valve

Bicuspid aortic valve is an inherited form of heart disease in which two of the leaflets of the aortic valve fuse during development in the womb resulting in a two-leaflet valve instead of the normal three-leaflet valve. BAV is the most common ca ...

Crisscross heart

Crisscross heart is a type of congenital heart defect where the right atrium is closely associated with the left ventricle in space, and the left atrium is closely associated with the right ventricle. Although it is classified as a defect, the cr ...

Cyanotic heart defect

A cyanotic heart defect is any congenital heart defect that occurs due to deoxygenated blood bypassing the lungs and entering the systemic circulation, or a mixture of oxygenated and unoxygenated blood entering the systemic circulation. It is cau ...

Damus–Kaye–Stansel procedure

The Damus–Kaye–Stansel procedure is a cardiovascular surgical procedure used as part of the repair of some congenital heart defects. This procedure joins the pulmonary artery and the aorta in situations where the systemic circulation is obstructe ...

Dextro-Transposition of the great arteries

dextro-Transposition of the great arteries, is a birth defect in the large arteries of the heart. The primary arteries are transposed. This is called a cyanotic congenital heart defect CHD because the newborn baby turns blue from lack of oxygen. ...

Double inlet left ventricle

A double inlet left ventricle or "single ventricle", is a congenital heart defect appearing in 5 in 100.000 newborns, where both the left atrium and the right atrium feed into the left ventricle. The right ventricle is hypoplastic or does not exi ...

Double outlet right ventricle

Double outlet right ventricle is a form of congenital heart disease where both of the great arteries connect to the right ventricle. In some cases it is found that this occurs on the left side of the heart rather than the right side.

Ebsteins anomaly

Ebsteins anomaly is a congenital heart defect in which the septal and posterior leaflets of the tricuspid valve are displaced towards the apex of the right ventricle of the heart. Its classified as a critical congenital heart defect accounting for

Glenn procedure

Glenn procedure is a palliative surgical procedure performed for patients with Tricuspid atresia. It is also part of the surgical treatment path for hypoplastic left heart syndrome. This procedure has been largely replaced by Bidirectional Glenn ...

Interrupted aortic arch

Interrupted aortic arch is a very rare heart defect in which the aorta is not completely developed. There is a gap between the ascending and descending thoracic aorta. In a sense it is the complete form of a coarctation of the aorta. Almost all p ...

Levo-Transposition of the great arteries

Levo-Transposition of the great arteries is an acyanotic congenital heart defect in which the primary arteries are transposed, with the aorta anterior and to the left of the pulmonary artery, the morphological left and right ventricles with their ...

Noncompaction cardiomyopathy

Non-compaction cardiomyopathy, is a rare congenital cardiomyopathy that affects both children and adults. It results from the failure of myocardial development during embryogenesis. In the course of development, a large part of the heart muscle s ...

Ostium primum atrial septal defect

The ostium primum atrial septal defect is a defect in the atrial septum at the level of the tricuspid and mitral valves. This is sometimes known as an endocardial cushion defect because it often involves the endocardial cushion, which is the port ...

Sinus venosus atrial septal defect

A sinus venosus atrial septal defect is a type of atrial septal defect primarily associated with the sinus venosus. They represent 5% of atrial septal defects. They can occur near the superior Vena cava or inferior Vena cava, but the first is mor ...