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Effects of high altitude on humans

The effects of high altitude on humans are considerable. The percentage oxygen saturation of hemoglobin determines the content of oxygen in blood. After the human body reaches around 2.100 m above sea level, the saturation of oxyhemoglobin begins ...

Frostbite

Frostbite occurs when exposure to low temperatures causes freezing of the skin or other tissues. The initial symptom is typically numbness. This may be followed by clumsiness with a white or bluish color to the skin. Swelling or blistering may oc ...

High-altitude adaptation in humans

High-altitude adaptation in humans is an instance of evolutionary modification in certain human populations, including those of Tibet in Asia, the Andes of the Americas, and Ethiopia in Africa, who have acquired the ability to survive at extremel ...

High-altitude cerebral edema

High-altitude cerebral edema is a medical condition in which the brain swells with fluid because of the physiological effects of traveling to a high altitude. It generally appears in patients who have acute mountain sickness and involves disorien ...

High-altitude flatus expulsion

High-altitude flatus expulsion is a gastrointestinal syndrome which involves the spontaneous passage of increased quantities of rectal gases at high altitudes. First described by Joseph Hamel in c. 1820 and occasionally described afterward, a lan ...

High-altitude pulmonary edema

High-altitude pulmonary edema is a life-threatening form of non-cardiogenic pulmonary edema that occurs in otherwise healthy people at altitudes typically above 2.500 meters. However, cases have also been reported between 1.500–2.500 metres or 4. ...

Hunting reaction

The hunting reaction or hunting response is a process of alternating vasoconstriction and vasodilation in extremities exposed to cold. The term Lewis reaction is used too, named after Thomas Lewis, who first described the effect in 1930. Vasocons ...

Hypoxia (medical)

Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level. Hypoxia may be classified as either generalized, affecting the whole body, or local, affecting a region of the body. Altho ...

Photokeratitis

Photokeratitis or ultraviolet keratitis is a painful eye condition caused by exposure of insufficiently protected eyes to the ultraviolet rays from either natural or artificial sources. Photokeratitis is akin to a sunburn of the cornea and conjun ...

Portable hyperbaric bag

A portable hyperbaric bag, of which one brand is the Gamow bag, is an inflatable pressure bag large enough to accommodate a person inside. A person can be placed inside the bag which is sealed and inflated with a foot pump. Within minutes, the ef ...

Occupational safety and health

Occupational safety and health, also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety, occupational health, or occupational safety, is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work. These terms a ...

Total Recordable Incident Rate

The Total Recordable Incident Rate is a US measure of occupational safety and health, useful for comparing working conditions in workplaces and industries. It is calculated by combining the actual number of safety incidents and total work hours o ...

5S (methodology)

5S is a workplace organization method that uses a list of five Japanese words: seiri, seiton, seisō, seiketsu, and shitsuke. These have been translated as "Sort", "Set In order", "Shine", "Standardize" and "Sustain". The list describes how to org ...

Accident triangle

The accident triangle, also known as Heinrichs triangle or Birds triangle, is a theory of industrial accident prevention. It shows a relationship between serious accidents, minor accidents and near misses and proposes that if the number of minor ...

Acute radiation syndrome

Acute radiation syndrome, also known as radiation sickness or radiation poisoning, is a collection of health effects due to exposure to high amounts of ionizing radiation over a short period of time. Symptoms can begin within an hour and may last ...

Administrative controls

Administrative controls are training, procedure, policy, or shift designs that lessen the threat of a hazard to an individual. Administrative controls typically change the behavior of people rather than removing the actual hazard or providing per ...

Agricultural safety and health

Agricultural safety and health is an aspect of occupational safety and health in the agricultural workplace. It specifically addresses the health and safety of farmers, farm workers, and their families. Contrary to perceived belief and notions of ...

Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety

The Alliance for Bangladesh Worker Safety, also known as "the Alliance" or AFBWS, is a group of 28 major global retailers formed to develop and launch the Bangladesh Worker Safety Initiative, a binding, five-year undertaking with the intent of im ...

American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

American College of Occupational and Environmental Medicine is a United States-based professional society for health care professionals in the field of occupational safety and health. ACOEM is the pre-eminent physician-led organization that champ ...

Anticipate, recognize, evaluate, control, and confirm

Anticipate, recognize, evaluate, control, and confirm is a decision-making framework and process used in the field of industrial hygiene to anticipate and recognize hazards, evaluate exposures, and control and confirm protection from risks. ARECC ...

Asbestos

Asbestos is a term used to refer to six naturally occurring silicate minerals. All are composed of long and thin fibrous crystals, each fiber being composed of many microscopic fibrils that can be released into the atmosphere by abrasion and othe ...

Asbestos and the law

The mineral asbestos is subject to a wide range of laws and regulations that relate to its production and use, including mining, manufacturing, use and disposal. Injuries attributed to asbestos have resulted in both workers compensation claims an ...

Asbestos and the law (United States)

Within the United States, the use of asbestos is limited by state and federal regulations and legislation. Improper use of asbestos and injury from exposure is addressed through administrative action, litigation, and criminal prosecution. Injury ...

Asbestos-related diseases

Asbestos-related diseases are disorders of the lung and pleura caused by the inhalation of asbestos fibres. Asbestos-related diseases include non-malignant disorders such as asbestosis, diffuse pleural thickening, pleural plaques, pleural effusio ...

Ash pit

An ash pit is a remnant of a wildfire. It is a hole in the ground filled with ash, possibly containing hot embers beneath. It is one of the many hazards faced by those fighting wildfires. It is also a danger to residents and their pets returning ...

Association of Certifying Factory Surgeons

The Association of Certifying Factory Surgeons was founded in 1888 and was based in Manchester, with branches in other cities. Certifying surgeons were first appointed under the Factory Act of 1833 which required that a child between the ages of ...

Automated conveyor roller condition monitoring

Automated conveyor roller condition monitoring is an emerging field that has risen out of the need to make bulk handling conveyors more reliable. Belt conveyor systems are widely utilized for continuous transport of dry bulk materials i.e. coal, ...

B reader

A "B" reader is a physician certified by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health as demonstrating proficiency in classifying radiographs of the pneumoconioses.

Basic Occupational Health Services

The Basic Occupational Health Services are an application of the primary health care principles in the sector of occupational health. Primary health care definition can be found in the World Health Organization Alma Ata declaration from the year ...

Benzene

Benzene is an organic chemical compound with the molecular formula C 6 H 6. The benzene molecule is composed of six carbon atoms joined in a ring with one hydrogen atom attached to each. As it contains only carbon and hydrogen atoms, benzene is c ...

Beryllium

Beryllium is a chemical element with the symbol Be and atomic number 4. It is a relatively rare element in the universe, usually occurring as a product of the spallation of larger atomic nuclei that have collided with cosmic rays. Within the core ...

Bleed air

Bleed air is compressed air taken from the compressor stage of a gas turbine upstream of its fuel-burning sections. Automatic air supply and cabin pressure controller valves bleed air from high or low stage engine compressor sections. Low stage a ...

Cadmium

Cadmium is a chemical element with the symbol Cd and atomic number 48. This soft, silvery-white metal is chemically similar to the two other stable metals in group 12, zinc and mercury. Like zinc, it demonstrates oxidation state +2 in most of its ...

Canadian Registered Safety Professional

The Canadian Registered Safety Professional / Professionnel en securite agree du Canada is a certification offered by the Board of Canadian Registered Safety Professionals for an Occupational Health and Safety professional. The CRSP/PSAC is accre ...

Carbon disulfide

Carbon disulfide is a colorless volatile liquid with the formula CS 2. The compound is used frequently as a building block in organic chemistry as well as an industrial and chemical non-polar solvent. It has an "ether-like" odor, but commercial s ...

Carbonless copy paper

Carbonless copy paper, non-carbon copy paper, or NCR paper is a type of coated paper designed to transfer information written on the front onto sheets beneath. It was developed by chemists Lowell Schleicher and Barry Green, as an alternative to c ...

Carpal tunnel

In the human body, the carpal tunnel or carpal canal is the passageway on the palmar side of the wrist that connects the forearm to the hand. The tunnel is bounded by the bones of the wrist and flexor retinaculum from connective tissue. Normally ...

Causes of cancer

Cancer is a disease caused by genetic changes leading to uncontrolled cell growth and tumor formation. The basic cause of sporadic cancers is DNA damage and genomic instability. A minority of cancers are due to inherited genetic mutations. Most c ...

Certified safety professional

The Certified Safety Professional is a certification offered by the Board of Certified Safety Professionals. The accreditation is used in the United States by the National Commission for Certifying Agencies and internationally by the Internationa ...

Chemical accident

A chemical disaster is the unintentional release of one or more hazardous substances which could harm human health and the environment. Chemical hazards are systems where chemical accidents could occur under certain circumstances. Such events inc ...

Chemical protective clothing

Chemical protective clothing is clothing worn to shield those who work with chemicals from the effects of chemical hazards that can cause injuries on the job. It provides a last line of defense for chemical safety; it does not replace more proact ...

Chemotherapy

Chemotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen. Chemotherapy may be given with a curative intent, or it may aim to prolong life or to reduce symptoms. Chemotherapy ...

Chilean Safety Association

The Chilean Safety Association is a Chilean private non-profit organization, focused in development of risk prevention programs, and occupational accidents coverage. With more than 2.6 million affiliated workers, more than 73.000 affiliated emplo ...

Chlorine

Chlorine is a chemical element with the symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate between them. Chlorine is a yell ...

Chloroprene

Chloroprene is the common name for 2-chlorobuta-1.3-diene with the chemical formula CH 2 =CCl−CH=CH 2. Chloroprene is a colorless volatile liquid, almost exclusively used as a monomer for the production of the polymer polychloroprene, a type of s ...

Chromium

Chromium is a chemical element with the symbol Cr and atomic number 24. It is the first element in group 6. It is a steely-grey, lustrous, hard and brittle transition metal. Chromium is the main additive in stainless steel, to which it adds anti- ...

Closed system drug transfer device

A closed system drug transfer device or "CSTD" is a drug transfer device that mechanically prohibits the transfer of environmental contaminants into a system and the escape of hazardous drug or vapor concentrations outside the system. Open versus ...

CLP Regulation

The CLP Regulation is a European Union regulation from 2008, which aligns the European Union system of classification, labelling and packaging of chemical substances and mixtures to the Globally Harmonised System. It is expected to facilitate glo ...

Code of practice

A code of practice can be a document that complements occupational health and safety laws and regulations to provide detailed practical guidance on how to comply with legal obligations, and should be followed unless another solution with the same ...

Code of safe working practices

The Code of Safe Working Practices is published by the Maritime and Coastguard Agency of the UK. The code details the regulatory framework for health and safety aboard ship, safety management and statutory duties underlying to the advice in the c ...

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Pino - logical board game which is based on tactics and strategy. In general this is a remix of chess, checkers and corners. The game develops imagination, concentration, teaches how to solve tasks, plan their own actions and of course to think logically. It does not matter how much pieces you have, the main thing is how they are placement!

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