ⓘ Free online encyclopedia. Did you know? page 464

Recurrent nevus

Pseudomelanoma is a cutaneous condition in which melantic skin lesions clinically resemble a superficial spreading melanoma at the site of a recent shave removal of a melanocytic nevus.

Histiocytosis

In medicine, histiocytosis is an excessive number of histiocytes, and the term is also often used to refer to a group of rare diseases which share this sign as a characteristic. Occasionally and confusingly, the term "histiocytosis" is sometimes ...

Sea-blue histiocytosis

Sea-blue histiocytosis is a cutaneous condition that may occur as a familial inherited syndrome or as an acquired secondary or systemic infiltrative process.

Lichen myxedematosus

Lichen myxedematosus is a group of cutaneous disorders considered mucinoses. Conditions included in this group are: Localized lichen myxedematosus. (Локализуется лишай myxedematosus) Generalized lichen myxedematosus. (Обобщенная лишайников myxede ...

Scleromyxedema

Papular mucinosis is a rare skin disease. Localized and disseminated cases are called papular mucinosis or lichen myxedematosus while generalized, confluent papular forms with sclerosis are called scleromyxedema. Frequently, all three forms are r ...

Pretibial myxedema

Pretibial myxedema, also known as Graves dermopathy, thyroid dermopathy, Jadassohn-Dosseker disease or Myxoedema tuberosum) is an infiltrative dermopathy, resulting as a rare complication of Graves disease, with an incidence rate of about 1-5%.

Acquired hypogammaglobulinemia

Common variable immunodeficiency is an immune disorder characterized by recurrent infections and low antibody levels, specifically in immunoglobulin types IgG, IgM and IgA. Generally symptoms include high susceptibility to foreign invaders, chron ...

Isolated primary IgM deficiency

Isolated primary immunoglobulin M deficiency is a poorly defined dysgammaglobulinemia characterized by decreased levels of IgM while levels of other immunoglobulins are normal. The immunodeficiency has been associated with some clinical disorders ...

Janus kinase 3 deficiency

JAK3 deficiency is a dysfunction in cytokine receptor signalling and their production of cytokines. JAK3 is a tyrosine protein kinase, the enzyme which is encoded by JAK3 gene. It is a kinase which is only activated cytokines, receptors containin ...

Lichen nitidus

Lichen nitidus is a chronic inflammatory disease of unknown cause characterized by 1–2 mm, discrete and uniform, shiny, flat-topped, pale flesh-colored or reddish-brown papules that may appear as hypopigmented against dark skin. Occasionally, min ...

Recurrent palmar peeling

Keratolysis exfoliativa is a sometimes harmless, sometimes painful skin condition that can affect the focal surface of the fingers and/or the palm or soles of the feet. It is often misdiagnosed as chronic contact dermatitis or psoriasis. It is ch ...

Lichen ruber pilaris

Pityriasis rubra pilaris refers to a group of chronic disorders characterized by reddish orange, scaling plaques and keratotic follicular papules. Symptoms may include reddish-orange patches on the skin, severe flaking, uncomfortable itching, thi ...

Aquagenic pruritus

Aquagenic pruritus is a skin condition characterized by the development of severe, intense, prickling-like epidermal itching without observable skin lesions and evoked by contact with water.

Cholestatic pruritus

Cholestatic pruritus is the sensation of itch due to nearly any liver disease, but the most commonly associated entities are primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis, obstructive choledocholithiasis, carcinoma of the bile duct, c ...

Itch

Itch is a sensation that causes the desire or reflex to scratch. Itch has resisted many attempts to be classified as any one type of sensory experience. Itch has many similarities to pain, and while both are unpleasant sensory experiences, their ...

Neurodermatitis

Lichen simplex chronicus is a skin disorder characterized by chronic itching and scratching. The constant scratching causes thick, leathery, darkened, skin. This condition is associated with many factors, including the scratch-itch cycle, psychol ...

Pruritus ani

Pruritus ani is the irritation of the skin at the exit of the rectum, known as the anus, causing the desire to scratch. The intensity of anal itching increases from moisture, pressure, and rubbing caused by clothing and sitting. At worst, anal it ...

Referred itch

Referred itch is the phenomenon in which a stimulus applied in one region of the body is felt as an itch or irritation in a different part of the body. The syndrome is relatively harmless, though it can be irritating, and healthy individuals can ...

Intestinal bypass arthritis–dermatitis syndrome

Bowel-associated dermatosis–arthritis syndrome, is a complication of jejunoileal bypass surgery consisting of flu-like symptoms, multiple painful joints, muscle aches and skin changes. It has been reported to occur in up to 20% of patients who ha ...

Cholinergic urticaria

Cholinergic urticaria is a type of physical urticaria that appears when a person is sweating or their core body temperature increases.

Mast cell-dependent urticaria

The condition manifests as an allergic-like reaction, causing a warm red wheal to appear on the skin. As it is often the result of scratches, involving contact with other materials, it can be confused with an allergic reaction, when in fact it is ...

Quincke edema

Hereditary angioedema is a disorder that results in recurrent attacks of severe swelling. The swelling most commonly affects the arms, legs, face, intestinal tract, and airway. Itchiness does not typically occur. If the intestinal tract is affect ...

Ischemic ulcer

Arterial insufficiency ulcers are mostly located on the lateral surface of the ankle or the distal digits. They are commonly caused by peripheral artery disease.

Thromboangiitis obliterans

Thromboangiitis obliterans, also known as Buerger disease, is a recurring progressive inflammation and thrombosis of small and medium arteries and veins of the hands and feet. It is strongly associated with use of tobacco products, primarily from ...

Purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi

Majocchis disease, also known as Purpura annularis telangiectodes of Majocchi is a well-recognized but uncommon skin condition characterized by purple/bluish-red 1- to 3-cm annular patches composed of dark red telangiectases with petechiae. It is ...

Necrotizing vasculitis

Necrotizing vasculitis also called Systemic necrotizing vasculitus is a category of vasculitis, comprising vasculitides that present with necrosis. Examples include giant cell arteritis, microscopic polyangiitis, and granulomatosis with polyangii ...

Palpable purpura

Palpable purpura is a condition where purpura, which constitutes visible non-blanching hemorrhages, are raised and able to be touched or felt upon palpation. It indicates some sort of vasculitis secondary to a serious disease.

Varicose eczema

Stasis dermatitis refers to the skin changes that occur in the leg as a result of "stasis" or blood pooling from insufficient venous return, the alternative name of varicose eczema comes from a common cause of this being varicose veins. Inadequat ...

Superficial thrombophlebitis

Superficial thrombophlebitis is a thrombosis and inflammation of superficial veins which presents as a painful induration with erythema, often in a linear or branching configuration forming cords. Superficial thrombophlebitis is due to inflammati ...

Anorectal disorder

Anorectal disorders are painful but common conditions like hemorrhoids, tears, fistulas, or abscesses that affect the anal region. Most people experience some form of anorectal disorder during their lifetime. Primary care physicians can treat mos ...

Functional gastrointestinal disorder

Functional gastrointestinal disorders, also known as disorders of gut-brain interaction include a number of separate idiopathic disorders which affect different parts of the gastrointestinal tract and involve visceral hypersensitivity and motilit ...

Gallstone ileus

Gallstone ileus is a rare form of small bowel obstruction caused by an impaction of a gallstone within the lumen of the small intestine. Such a gallstone enters the bowel via a cholecysto-enteric fistula. The presence of large stones, &gt, 2.5 cm ...

Gastrojejunocolic fistula

A gastrojejunocolic fistula is a disorder of the human gastrointestinal tract. It may form between the transverse colon and the upper jejunum after a Billroth II surgical procedure. Fecal matter thereby passes improperly from the colon to the sto ...

Intestinal neuronal dysplasia

Intestinal neuronal dysplasia is an inherited disease of the intestine that affects one in 3000 children and adults. The intestine uses peristalsis to push its contents toward the anus, IND sufferers have a problem with the motor neurons that lea ...

Intestinal spirochetosis

No clear association exists with complaints. However, potential associations include abdominal pain and watery diarrhea, which may be seen with blood, however, these findings are not specific and may be due to a number of other causes.

Megacolon

Megacolon is an abnormal dilation of the colon. The dilation is often accompanied by a paralysis of the peristaltic movements of the bowel. In more extreme cases, the feces consolidate into hard masses inside the colon, called fecalomas, which ca ...

Melanosis coli

Melanosis coli, also pseudomelanosis coli, is a disorder of pigmentation of the wall of the colon, often identified at the time of colonoscopy. It is benign, and may have no significant correlation with disease. The brown pigment is lipofuscin in ...

Mucositis

Mucositis is the painful inflammation and ulceration of the mucous membranes lining the digestive tract, usually as an adverse effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy treatment for cancer. Mucositis can occur anywhere along the gastrointestinal t ...

Pancolitis

Pancolitis, in its most general sense, refers to inflammation of the entire colon. This can be caused by a variety of things. Pancolitis or universal colitis is frequently used in a more specific fashion to denote a very severe form of ulcerative ...

Pouchitis

Pouchitis is inflammation of the ileal pouch, which is created in the management of patients with ulcerative colitis, indeterminate colitis, FAP, or, rarely, other colitides. Various pathophysiological mechanisms have been proposed for pouchitis, ...

Protein losing enteropathy

Protein losing enteropathy refers to any condition of the gastrointestinal tract that results in a net loss of protein from the body.

Pneumoperitoneum

Pneumoperitoneum is pneumatosis in the peritoneal cavity, a potential space within the abdominal cavity. The most common cause is a perforated abdominal organ, generally from a perforated peptic ulcer, although any part of the bowel may perforate ...

Pneumoretroperitoneum

Pneumoretroperitoneum is the presence of air in the retroperitoneum. It is always a pathological condition and can be caused by a perforation of a retroperitoneal hollow organ such as the duodenum, colon or rectum. Pneumoretroperitoneum can best ...

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis

Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis is the development of a bacterial infection in the peritoneum, despite the absence of an obvious source for the infection. It is specifically an infection of the ascitic fluid – an increased volume of peritoneal ...

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo

Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disorder arising from a problem in the inner ear. Symptoms are repeated, brief periods of vertigo with movement, that is, of a spinning sensation upon changes in the position of the head. This can occur w ...

Labyrinthine fistula

A labyrinthine fistula is an abnormal opening in the inner ear. This can result in leakage of the perilymph into the middle ear. This includes specifically a perilymph fistula, an abnormal connection between the fluid of the inner ear and the air ...

Menieres disease

Menieres disease is a disorder of the inner ear that is characterized by episodes of feeling like the world is spinning, ringing in the ears, hearing loss, and a fullness in the ear. Typically, only one ear is affected initially, however, over ti ...

Otosclerosis

Otosclerosis is a condition where one or more foci of irregularly laid spongy bone replace part of normally dense enchondral layer of bony otic capsule in the bony labyrinth. This condition affects one of the ossicles resulting in hearing loss, t ...

Schwartz sign

Schwartz sign also known as Flemingos pink sign, is a diagnostic indicator for otosclerosis, a disease of the bones of the middle or inner ear. In the clinical examination of the tympanic membrane, increased vascularity of the promontory can be s ...

Bezolds abscess

Bezolds abscess is an abscess deep to the sternocleidomastoid muscle where pus from mastoiditis erodes through the cortex of the mastoid part of the temporal bone, medial to the attachment of sternocleidomastoid, extends into the infratemporal fo ...